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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable analyses identifying factors associated with depression in the participants

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with depression in the hill tribe population aged 40 years and older in northern Thailand

Characteristics OR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
Sex
 Male 1.00    1.00   
 Female 1.45 1.03 – 2.06 0.036* 2.09 1.30 – 3.35 0.002*
Tribe
 Akha 1.00      
 Lahu 1.98 1.36—2.89  < 0.001*    
 Mien 2.49 1.44 – 4.30 0.001*    
 Lisu 2.09 1.15 – 3.80 0.015*    
Age (years)
 40–59 1.00      
 ≥ 60 0.98 0.70 – 1.38 0.926    
Religion
 Buddhist 1.93 1.39 – 2.70  < 0.001*    
 Christian 1.00      
Marital status
 Single 1.00      
 Married 1.38 0.94 – 2.02 0.096    
Education
 Not educated beyond primary school 1.77 0.38–3.66 0.078    
 High school and higher 1.00      
Having an income
 No 1.14 0.82 – 1.58 0.445    
 Yes 1.00      
Family debt
 No 1.00      
 Yes 1.71 1.22 – 2.40 0.002*    
Living situation
 With family member 1.00      
 Alone 1.77 0.79–3.66 0.676    
History of psychoactive substance use
 No 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 1.52 1.09 – 2.13 0.014* 1.97 1.25 – 3.10 0.003*
Smoking
 No 1.00      
 Yes 2.21 1.04–2.09 0.027*    
Alcohol use
 No 1.00      
 Yes 1.20 0.80–1.79 0.372    
Having a medical condition
 No 1.00      
 Yes 1.87 1.33 – 2.63  < 0.001*    
Experiencing stress 6 months prior
 No 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 8.58 5.77 – 12.76  < 0.001* 6.43 4.20 – 9.85  < 0.001*
Reduction in ability to complete housework
 No 1.00      
 Yes 1.77 0.89–2.66 0.081    
Living independently with no need for interaction with people
 No 1.00      
 Yes 8.10 4.43–15.23  < 0.001*    
Reduced work productivity within the previous 6 months
 No 1.00      
 Yes 6.59 4.41–10.32  < 0.001*    
Knowledge
 Low 2.11 0.71–4.66 0.399    
 Moderate 1.89 0.51–3.95 0.067    
 High 1.00      
Attitude
 Poor 0.97 0.77–4.41 0.321    
 Neutral 1.13 0.5505.17 0.171    
 Good 1.00      
  1. *Significance level at α = 0.05