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Table 1 Evaluation of demographic features of the general population regarding symptoms of clinically significant depressive and anxiety

From: The mental health impact of COVID-19 outbreak: a Nationwide Survey in Iran

Variables Frequency Depressive symptomsa n = 1295 (%) No depression n = 7296 (%) ORb (95% CI) Anxiety symptomsa n = 1733 (%) No anxiety n = 6858 (%) OR (95% CI)
Age group (years)
 ≤ 20a 894 199 (22.3) 695 (77.7) 221 (24.7) 673 (75.3)
 21–30 2533 491 (19.4) 2042 (80.6) 1.19 (0.99–1.43) 618 (24.4) 1915 (75.6) 1.02 (0.85–1.22)
 31–40 2978 414 (13.9) 2564 (86.1) 1.77 (1.47–2.14)* 595 (20) 2383 (80) 1.32 (1.10–1.57)*
 41–50 1351 139 (10.3) 1212 (89.7) 2.50 (1.97–3.16)* 222 (16.4) 1129 (83.6) 1.67 (1.36–2.06)*
 > 50 820 50 (6.1) 770 (93.9) 4.41 (3.18–6.11)* 74 (9) 746 (91) 3.31 (2.49–4.39)*
Sex
 Male 2888 330 (11.4) 2558 (88.6) 1.58 (1.38–1.81)* 475 (16.4) 2413 (83.6) 1.44 (1.28–1.62)*
 Femalea 5703 965 (16.9) 4738 (83.1) 1258 (22.1) 4445 (77.9)
Marital
 Single 3544 697 (19.7) 2847 (80.3) 0.55 (0.49–0.62)* 825 (23.3) 2719 (76.7) 0.72 (0.66–0.80)*
 Marrieda 5047 598 (11.8) 4449 (88.2) 908 (18) 4139 (82)
Occupation
 Health workera 1774 301 (17) 1473 (83) 1.20 (1.04–1.38)* 365 (20.6) 1409 (79.4) 1.04 (0.91–1.17)
 Non-health worker 6817 994 (14.6) 5823 (85.4) 1358 (20.1) 5449 (79.9)
Education
 Under diplomaa 548 98 (17.9) 450 (82.1) 140 (25.5) 408 (74.5)
 Diploma 1590 220 (13.8) 1370 (86.2) 1.36 (1.05–1.76)* 317 (19.9) 1273 (80.1) 1.38 (1.10–1.73)*
 Academic 6453 977 (15.1) 5476 (84.9) 1.22 (0.97–1.54) 1276 (19.8) 5177 (80.2) 1.39 (1.14–1.70)*
Living place
 House/villaa 3238 478 (14.8) 2760 (85.2) 640 (19.8) 2598 (80.2)
 Apartment 5164 782 (15.1) 4382 (84.9) 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 1058 (20.5) 4106 (79.5) 0.96 (0.86–1.07)
 Dormitory 189 35 (18.5) 154 (81.5) 0.76 (0.52–1.11) 35 (18.5) 154 (81.5) 1.08 (0.74–1.58)
Number of individuals in each household
 1–4 7109 1052 (14.8) 6057 (85.2) 1.13 (0.97–1.32) 1404 (19.7) 5705 (80.3) 1.16 (1.01–1.33)*
 Above 4a 1482 243 (16.4) 1239 (83.6) 329 (22.2) 1153 (77.8)
History of travel
 Yes 1950 316 (16.2) 1634 (83.8) 0.89 (0.78–1.03) 385 (19.7) 1565 (80.3) 1.04 (0.91–1.18)
 Noa 6641 979 (14.7) 5662 (85.3) 1348 (20.3) 5293 (79.7)
Source of information
 Social media/interneta 7119 1066 (15) 6053 (85) 1413 (20.1) 5688 (79.9) -
 Physicians and nurses 5794 859 (14.8) 4935 (85.2) 1.01 (0.92–1.12) 1147 (19.8) 4647 (80.2) 1.01 (0.92–1.10)
 Family or friends 4513 680 (15.1) 3833 (84.9) 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 886 (19.6) 3627 (80.4) 1.02 (0.93–1.12)
 Scientific articles and journals 4101 556 (13.6) 3545 (86.4) 1.12 (1.01–1.25)* 778 (19) 3323 (81) 1.06 (0.96–1.17)
 Television/radio 3987 616 (15.5) 3371 (84.9) 0.96 (0.87–1.07) 819 (20.5) 3168 (79.5) 0.96 (0.87–1.06)
  1. aIndicate reference level
  2. bIndicator of unadjusted odds ratio, based on chi-square test
  3. *Significant compared to the reference level; Pseudo-r-square: 2.4%