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Table 1 Collaborative strategies in three types of processes

From: A heuristic model for collaborative practice—part 2: development of the collaborative, dialogue-based clinical practice model for community mental health and substance abuse care

Process types for collaboration Specific collaborative strategies
Interactive-dialogic process Maintaining human relationship
Walking alongside
Information sharing
Seizing the present moment
Taking the perspective of the other
Aligning & Scaffolding
Negotiated-participatory engagement process Feedback-informing process
Putting differences to work
Negotiated partnering
Accommodating user participation
Addressing the tension between help and control
Negotiated supportive process Helping in context
Coordinating
Pulling together
Advocating
Availing