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Table 1 Promotion and preventive strategies in youth mental health

From: Prevention and early intervention in youth mental health: is it time for a multidisciplinary and trans-diagnostic model for care?

  Identified key target areas Areas for further improvement and future objectives
Promotion Promotion-prevention continuum Address entire community
Nutrition and health care Integrated and multidisciplinary actions
Housing and homelessness Healthcare-community collaborations
Child abuse  
Negative consequences of parents’ divorce  
Family support  
Education and school-related problematic behavior  
Addictive substance use/dependence  
Personal skill development/management of stressful life events  
Primary prevention Life-span continuum (Early stage-intensification of risk continuum)  
Universal Brain development and anti-inflammatory neuroprotection (Phosphatidylcholine and N-acetylcysteine supplementation) Pathophysiological mechanisms during early development
Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and microbiota dysbiosis (Omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin, sulforaphane, and prebiotic supplementation)  
Bullying and peer rejection (School-based behavioral interventions)  
Substance abuse  
Brain plasticity, structure, connectivity, and cognitive functioning (Lifetime exercise training)  
Selective Parental mental illness Poor validity of boundaries between diagnostic categories
Paternal age Lack of evidence-based selective interventions
Maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy Youth with family history of severe mental illness (genetic risk)
Season of birth  
Ethnic minority  
Immigration status  
Urban environment  
Infections  
Childhood adversities, socio-financial disadvantage, maladaptive behavior (Nursing home visits, school-based interventions, home teaching)  
Vitamin D deficiency and malnutrition  
Low premorbid intelligence quotient  
Traumatic brain injury  
Heavy tobacco and cannabis use  
Indicated Psychosis-risk state Limited psychosis detection rate
Service engagement and liaison with secondary intervention services Pluripotent and trans-diagnostic risk state
Duration of untreated illness Multi-component symptom intervention
Control of symptoms and self-control of emotion and behavior (Cognitive behavioral, relaxation, mindfulness, and meditation strategies)  
Poor social problem solving and low quality of social support (Social skill training)  
Interpersonal conflict (Interpersonal psychotherapy, forgiveness programs)  
Loneliness and social difficulties in general (Resilience training)  
Secondary prevention Collaborative care Primary care-specialist mental health care collaborations
Recovery  
Duration of untreated illness  
Poor treatment response/treatment resistance  
Poor psycho-social well-being and functioning  
Comorbid substance use  
Burden on families  
Tertiary prevention Recovery Disease progression
Poor treatment response/treatment resistance Interventions to prevent multiple relapses
Poor psycho-social well-being and functioning  
Comorbid substance use  
Burden on families