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Table 2 Characteristics of integrated community-based youth service hub models of primary focus in the review

From: Key attributes of integrated community-based youth service hubs for mental health: a scoping review

Program Population Setting characteristics Service providers Services and interventions Infrastructure and care coordination methods
ACCESS Open Minds (CAN) [13, 38,39,41] 11–25 years
Youth with established or emerging mental health problems
Any type of mental health problem, mild to severe
Youth-friendly physical spaces serve as portals for help-seeking and venues for peer support activities ACCESS-trained clinicians (healthcare professionals who are not physicians)
Youth and family peer support workers
Evidence-informed interventions staged by phase of illness and level of care needed
Ranges from minimal support and basic psychosocial interventions to care for common and severe disorders, through connections to specialized services
Tele-monitoring, remote specialist consultations, and electronic specialized interventions as needed
ACCESS clinician connects youth to appropriate services by referring to further specialized care if needed, introducing youth to specialists and, accompanying them and their families to initial appointments as needed
Forward Thinking Birmingham (UK) [13, 14, 37] 0–25 years
Range of common mental health conditions
Non-stigmatizing, youth-friendly environment Consultant psychiatrist
Not further specified in documents reviewed
Youthspace included assessment and diagnostic formation followed by brief CBT and symptomatic treatment via medication by GP, with consultation team advising
Community partnerships provided activities to reduce NEET status
Access to on-line support and information, specialized intensive care streams when needed
Not specified in documents reviewed
Foundry (CAN) [42, 43, 75, 76, 79, 98] 12–24 years
Mild to moderate mental health and substance use problems
Non-traditional settings (e.g., shopping centers, store fronts) General practitioners, nurses and nurse practitioners, psychiatrists, social workers
Peer support workers
Primary care, sexual health, mental health, substance use counseling
Evidence-based practices
Psychosocial rehabilitation, housing support, income assistance, and peer support through partnerships
Collective impact approach, involving centralized infrastructure and structured processes to coordinate ongoing collaboration, (e.g., data capture systems for cross-partnership service integration, clinical care, research, evaluation)
Tele-health and information sharing guidelines to increase effectiveness and coordination of team-based care
headspace (AUS) [12,13,14, 29,30,32, 45,46,48, 50, 51, 52,53,54,56, 57,58,60, 64, 69, 70, 73, 74, 80, 81, 84, 90, 90,91,94, 97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,118] 12–25 years
Not diagnosis specific
Majority present with high or very high levels of psychological distress
19–29% of young adults with NEET status
Centrally located, close to public transport
Youth-friendly, relaxed environments: couches and bean bag chairs, colorful walls, creative artwork
Less white space characteristic of traditional health care settings, open waiting area, open center spaces, and high ceilings
Recreational activities
General practitioners, psychologists, counsellors at all centers
Other specialist practitioners, such as psychiatrists or sexual health workers at some centers
Youth workers or social workers at some centers
Mental health nurses, occupational therapists, vocational support workers, and Aboriginal health workers
Four core service streams of mental health, drug and alcohol services, primary care, and vocational assistance
CBT most common treatment provided for all presenting concerns, followed by supportive counseling (not including youth with features of borderline personality disorder), and psychoeducation
Brief Intervention Clinic provided at some centers
Enhanced headspace services provide evidence-based early intervention services for psychosis (headspace Youth Early Psychosis Programs)
All youth enter data electronically before each service occasion (Minimum Data Set process)
headspace national office guides infrastructure efforts (e.g., funding and assessment guidelines, contracts, reporting structure and performance indicator development, policies, partnership documentation, memorandums of understanding, governance guidelines, business model guide)
Youth Access Clinician screens youth, becomes coordinating clinician, and provides brief interventions and supports
Jigsaw (IRL) [13, 14, 33,34,36, 45, 49, 57, 120] 12–25 years, most common age: 16 years
Not diagnosis specific
High levels of psychological distress
Many 21–25 year olds unemployed
More females than males in brief interventions
Majority of youth attend school, live with families, have married parents
Youth café facility provides a public space for a youth, a setting for program delivery, and a pathway to mental health and health supports Variety of allied health professionals, such as psychologists, OTs, social workers, and mental health nurses
Psychiatrists, GPs, youth workers, family therapists, drug counsellors at some sites
Wraparound facilitators already engaged with youth in various contexts
Individual case consultations (indirect support) and brief contacts
Brief interventions (1–6 sessions), CBT-informed and solution-focused
Extensive engagement processes commonly addressing emotional, cognitive and behavioral self-regulation, substance abuse, learning and family issues
Best-practice and evidence-based interventions
Peer support
Prevention programs
Social, recreational, and work related programs
Youth data captured through online system designed to record important clinical, case management, service delivery, and outcome-related information
Wraparound facilitator to ensure youth accesses necessary services
Psychiatrists or nurses link youth with services at primary care or community mental health clinic if needed
Outreach and support workers maintain connection and follow up with youth even after they engage with other services
Orygen Youth Health (AUS) [12, 14, 33, 61, 63, 72, 78, 83, 90, 120,121,124] 15–25 years
Psychosis, mood disorders, borderline personality disorder
Drop-in peer support and resource room designed and decorated by youth, co-located with outpatient services
IMYOS provides services in most natural setting, often home, school, public locations
Case manager is main point of contact and is a mental health nurse, clinical or provisional psychologist, OT, or social worker
Psychiatrists or psychiatric registrars.
Peer support workers
Hospital chaplains
Four specialized clinics offer 2 years of care and full range of interventions, including case management, individual support and therapy, and consultation–liaison; work closely with psychosocial recovery program
Embedded forensic consultation pilot program to better manage and reduce risks of violence
Crisis intervention and home-based treatment when needed
Additional inpatient service focused on acute care and brief admissions
Single, shared health record
Case manager links youth to services within and outside Orygen Youth Health
Duty workers support with urgent matters if case worker unavailable
YouthCan IMPACT (CAN) [44, 52, 88] 14–18 years (study age range)
Not diagnosis specific
Youth with MH challenges
Community mental health sites
Youth friendly spaces
Youth workers, social workers, care navigators, peer support workers, primary care providers
High intensity psychiatric response: psychiatrists, NPs
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) and group DBT for youth and family members
Primary care, high intensity psychiatric response
Care navigation, assertive outreach
Peer support, e-health support tools, 24/7 crisis text support
Care navigator works with specialists to coordinate care, ensure continuity, and support transitions between systems such as education and justice, adolescent and adult mental health
Youth One Stop Shops (NZL) [38, 62, 65, 82, 126, 127] 10–25 years
Not diagnosis specific
Centrally located
Non-specific signage to reduce stigma
Doctors, nurses
Youth workers and mentors, peer support workers
Counselors, social workers, psychologists
Primary care, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, drug and alcohol services, counselling, smoking cessation, family planning, health promotion and education services
Social services, including vocational, education, and training assistance, housing support
Legal services, parenting and youth transition services
CBT and motivational work
Youth workers facilitate access to all services, providing a bridge between the youth and needed services, and assist in coordinating care to optimize outcomes
Early electronic flagging of clients as they turn 24 years to prompt transition planning
  1. CBT cognitive-behavioral therapy, DBT dialectical behavioral therapy, NEET not in employment, education or training, IMYOS Intensive Mobile Youth Outreach Service, SFBT solution-focused brief therapy, GP general practitioner, OT occupational therapist, NP nurse practitioner, CAN Canada, UK United Kingdom, AUS Australia, IRL Ireland, NZL New Zealand