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Table 3 Annual direct medical costs per patient by insurance type (Four Periods)

From: Direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia: a 4-year cohort study from health insurance claims data in Guangzhou city, Southern China

Baseline Overall UEBMI URBMI P-value
n = 2971 n = 1760 n = 1211
Total costs
 Mean (CNY) 41,972.4 42,543.1 41,143.0 0.021
 SD (CNY) 22,741.3 24,250.8 20,330.0  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 13.0% 12.7% 13.5%  
Inpatient costs n = 2971 n = 1760 n = 1211  
 Mean (CNY) 41,780.9 42,375.1 40,917.3 0.018
 SD (CNY) 22,909.3 24,390.3 20,547.0  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 14.3% 14.0% 14.7%  
 Reimbursement (%) 76.1% 85.8% 61.5%  
 Aid (%) 9.6% 0.2% 23.8%  
Outpatient costs n = 329 n = 216 n = 113  
 Mean (CNY) 191.5 168.0 225.7 0.031
 SD (CNY) 747.5 607.2 913.0  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 63.6% 53.9% 74.1%  
 Reimbursement (%) 36.4% 46.1% 25.9%  
Follow-up: first year Overall UEBMI URBMI P-value
n = 2021 n = 1145 n = 876
Total costs
 Mean (CNY) 55,934.5 57,369.7 54,058.6 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 19,779.9 21,320.6 17,397.7  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 12.3% 10.7% 14.5%  
Inpatient costs n = 2021 n = 1145 n = 876  
 Mean (CNY) 55,887.6 57,332.8 53,998.5 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 19,851.0 21,376.4 17,492.4  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 12.9% 11.2% 15.2%  
 Reimbursement (%) 77.6% 88.8% 62.1%  
 Aid (%) 9.5% 0.0% 22.7%  
Outpatient costs n = 69 n = 41 n = 28  
 Mean (CNY) 47.0 36.9 60.1 0.676
SD (CNY) 339.7 273.3 410.5  
Out-of-pocket (%) 67.0% 55.5% 76.4%  
Reimbursement (%) 32.9% 44.6% 23.6%  
Follow-up: second year Overall UEBMI URBMI P-value
n = 1901 n = 1079 n = 822
Total costs
 Mean (CNY) 55,778.4 57,326.6 53,746.0 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 18,646.0 20,107.1 16,323.7  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 8.7% 10.7% 5.9%  
Inpatient costs n = 1901 n = 1079 n = 822  
 Mean (CNY) 55,732.3 57,287.6 53,690.7 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 18,725.5 20,178.4 16,416.4  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 8.7% 10.7% 5.9%  
 Reimbursement (%) 77.7% 88.9% 62.1%  
 Aid (%) 13.6% 0.4% 32.0%  
Outpatient costs n = 44 n = 22 n = 22  
 Mean (CNY) 46.1 39.0 55.3 0.356
 SD (CNY) 379.8 360.5 403.8  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 68.6% 58.1% 78.4%  
 Reimbursement (%) 31.3% 41.9% 21.6%  
Follow-up: third year Overall UEBMI URBMI P-value
n = 1754 n = 988 n = 766
Total costs     
 Mean (CNY) 56,544.1 60,163.7 51,875.6 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 21,283.6 22,155.4 19,130.6  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 8.2% 9.5% 6.1%  
Inpatient costs (n = 1229) n = 1754 n = 988 n = 766  
 Mean (CNY) 56,502.7 60,145.2 51,804.5 < 0.001
 SD (CNY) 21,346.2 22,195.0 19,218.0  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 8.1% 9.5% 6.0%  
 Reimbursement (%) 77.6% 88.1% 61.9%  
 Aid (%) 14.3% 2.4% 32.1%  
Outpatient costs n = 34 n = 14 n = 20  
 Mean (CNY) 41.4 18.4 71.1 0.069
 SD (CNY) 480.4 273.5 656.4  
 Out-of-pocket (%) 76.6% 57.4% 83.0%  
 Reimbursement (%) 23.4% 42.8% 17.0%  
  1. P-values are based on the Mann–Whitney test. All costs were based on a constant 2014 Chinese Yuan (CNY)
  2. UEBMI Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme, URBMI Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme, SD standard deviation