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Table 4 Factors associated with depressive symptoms among transgender women (n = 1375)

From: Exposure to gender-based violence and depressive symptoms among transgender women in Cambodia: findings from the National Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey 2016

Variables in the final modela Depressive symptomsb
AOR (95% CI) p-value
Study site  
 Urban Reference  
 Rural 1.55 (1.13–2.12) 0.006
Main occupation  
 Unemployed Reference  
 Entertainment worker 0.52 (0.27–0.99) 0.04
 Student 0.34 (0.17–0.70) 0.003
Co-workers or classmates are supportive regarding your transgender identity  
 Very much supportive Reference  
 Supportive 1.08 (0.78–1.51) 0.63
 Not supportive 2.00 (1.22–3.28) 0.006
 Not at all supportive 1.78 (0.39–8.20) 0.46
Difficulties in getting a job because of your transgender identity  
 No Reference  
 Yes 1.67 (1.29–2.16) < 0.001
Denied or thrown out of a housing because of your transgender identity  
 No Reference  
 Yes 1.53 (1.02–2.26) 0.04
Difficulties in getting health services because of your transgender identity  
 No Reference  
 Yes 2.40 (1.50–3.82) < 0.001
Physically abused because of your transgender identity  
 No Reference  
 Yes 1.54 (1.15–2.08) 0.04
Fearful of being arrested by police or authorities because of your transgender identity
 No Reference  
 Yes 2.18 (1.64–2.91) < 0.001
Someone had tried to touch me or make me touch them in a sexual way during childhood
 No Reference  
 Yes 2.08 (1.61–2.68) < 0.001
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aVariables in the table were the ones that remained statistically significant in the final multivariate logistic regression model after several steps of model fitting
  3. bDefined by a Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥ 16