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Table 3 Comparisons of adverse childhood experiences among university students with and without depressive symptoms

From: Exposure to gender-based violence and depressive symptoms among transgender women in Cambodia: findings from the National Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey 2016

Adverse childhood experiences Total (n = 1375) Depressive symptomsa
No (n = 756) Yes (n = 619) p-value
Had been hit, slapped, or kicked by a parent or guardian < 0.001
 No 568 (41.3) 347 (61.1) 221 (38.9)  
 Yes 807 (58.7) 409 (50.7) 398 (49.3)  
People in my family had said hurtful or insulting things to me < 0.001
 No 489 (35.6) 313 (64.0) 176 (36.0)  
 Yes 886 (64.4) 443 (50.0) 443 (50.0)  
Someone had tried to touch me or make me touch them in a sexual way < 0.001
 No 928 (67.5) 580 (62.5) 348 (37.5)  
 Yes 447 (32.5) 176 (39.4) 271 (60.6)  
There had been someone to take care of me when I got sick 0.003
 No 43 (3.1) 14 (32.6) 29 (67.4)  
 Yes 1332 (96.9) 742 (55.7) 590 (44.3)  
There had been someone who helped me feel that I was loved and important 0.007
 No 104 (7.6) 44 (42.3) 60 (57.7)  
 Yes 1271 (92.4) 712 (56.0) 559 (44.0)  
  1. Values are numbers of subjects (%)
  2.  Chi square test was used
  3. a Defined by a Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥ 16