Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparisons of socio-demographic characteristics, gender identity, and gender-related experiences of transgender women with and without depressive symptoms

From: Exposure to gender-based violence and depressive symptoms among transgender women in Cambodia: findings from the National Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey 2016

Characteristics Total (n = 1375) Depressive symptomsa
No (n = 756) Yes (n = 619) p-value
Study site 0.002
 Urban 1146 (83.3) 651 (56.8) 495 (43.2)  
 Rural 229 (16.7) 105 (45.9) 124 (54.1)  
Age group 0.04
 18–24 729 (53.0) 423 (58.0) 306 (42.0)  
 25–34 503 (36.6) 264 (52.5) 239 (47.5)  
 ≥ 35 143 (10.4) 69 (48.3) 74 (51.7)  
Marital status 0.001
 Married 7 (0.5) 4 (57.1) 3 (42.9)  
 Widowed/divorced/separated 18 (1.3) 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1)  
 Not married/not living with a partner 1074 (78.1) 622 (57.9) 452 (42.1)  
 Not married/living with a partner 260 (18.9) 114 (43.8) 146 (56.2)  
Months living in current city 16.4 ± 11.3 16.5 ± 11.2 16.4 ± 11.3 0.91
Monthly income (USD) 186 ± 231 189 ± 228 182 ± 235 0.58
Years of education completed 9.0 ± 3.4 9.4 ± 3.3 8.5 ± 3.4 < 0.001
Current job (main source of income) < 0.001
 Unemployed 64 (4.7) 33 (51.6) 31 (48.1)  
 Hair dresser/beautician 482 (35.1) 242 (50.2) 240 (49.8)  
 Government officer 16 (1.2) 11 (68.8) 3 (31.3)  
 Laborer 222 (16.1) 126 (56.8) 96 (43.2)  
 Seller 149 (10.8) 79 (53.0) 70 (47.0)  
 Entertainment worker 140 (10.2) 82 (58.6) 58 (41.4)  
 Sex worker 27 (2.0) 9 (33.3) 18 (66.7)  
 Student 108 (9.7) 84 (77.8) 24 (22.2)  
 NGO staff 34 (2.5) 19 (55.9) 15 (44.1)  
 Private company staff 34 (2.5) 21 (61.8) 13 (38.2)  
 Farmer/fisherman 19 (1.4) 9 (47.4) 10 (52.6)  
 Artist 36 (2.6) 21 (58.3) 15 (41.7)  
 Other 44 (3.2) 20 (45.5) 24 (54.5)  
Gender self-identity < 0.001
 Female 581 (42.3) 284 (48.9) 297 (51.1)  
 Third gender 794 (57.7) 472 (59.4) 322 (40.6)  
Frequency of expressing as a woman 0.36
 All the time 661 (48.1) 355 (53.7) 306 (46.3)  
 Not all the time 714 (51.9) 401 (56.2) 313 (43.8)  
Ever used gender-affirming hormones < 0.001
 No 756 (55.0) 451 (59.7) 305 (40.3)  
 Yes 619 (45.0) 305 (49.3) 314 (50.7)  
Ever had gender affirming surgeries 0.32
 No 1247 (90.7) 691 (55.4) 556 (44.6)  
 Yes 128 (9.3) 65 (50.8) 63 (49.2)  
  1. Values are numbers of subjects (%) for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables
  2.  Chi square test was used for categorical variables; independent Student’s t-test was used for continuous variables
  3. a Defined by a Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥ 16