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Table 8 Means, standard deviations and significance level for the components of the PSQI in both countries

From: Sleep disturbances and mental strain in university students: results from an online survey in Luxembourg and Germany

  Scale Germany Luxembourg Significance level
Mdn M (SD) Mdn M (SD)
(1) Sleep quality 1   1   U = 241,562; z = −1.207; p = .228
(2) Sleep-onset latency
In minutes
2 24.47 (26.85) 2 27.84 (26.05) U = 257,277, z = 1.888; p = .059
(3) Sleep duration
In hours
0 7.09 (1.08) 0 6.94 (1.17) U = 256,345; z = 1.615; p = .106
(4) Habitual sleep efficiency
In percent
0 87.83 (10.11) 0 86.30 (10.92) U = 258,207; z = 1.833; p = .067
(5) Sleep disturbance 1   1   U = 242,547; z = −.177; p = .907
(6) Use of sleep medication 0   0   U = 241,562; z = −.485; p = .628
(7) Daytime dysfunction 1   2   U = 242,553; z = .473; p = .636
  1. Mdn median; M mean; SD standard deviation; p ≤ 0.05