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Table 1 Paired sample t-test of clinical characteristics at baseline and follow-up (N = 40)

From: Satisfaction with primary care and mental health care among individuals with severe mental illness in a rural area: a seven-year follow-up study of a clinical cohort

Variables Baselinea Follow-up Improvement
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) CI 95 % p
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-E)b
 Positive symptoms 2.45 (1.13) 1.90 (1.01) 0.55 (1.10) (0.20–0.90) 0.003
 Negative symptoms 2.08 (1.01) 1.58 (0.84) 0.50 (0.95) (0.19–0.81) 0.002
 Depression anxiety 2.48 (1.11) 1.89 (0.83) 0.59 (1.37) (0.15–1.03) 0.010
 Manic hostility 1.97 (1.07) 1.72 (1.10) 0.25 (0.94) (−0.05–0.55) 0.104
 BPRS mean total score 2.23 (0.68) 1.82 (0.80) 0.41 (0.70) (0.18–0.63) 0.001
Health of the Nation Rating Scales (HoNOS)b
 1. Overactive, aggressive or agitated behavior 1.13 (1.28) 0.37 (0.68) 0.76 (1.05) (0.42–1.11) <0.001
 2. Non-accidental self-injury 0.47 (0.86) 0.16 (0.37) 0.32 (0.93) (0.01–0.62) 0.044
 3. Problem drinking or drug-taking 0.24 (0.68) 0.08 (0.49) 0.16 (0.50) (−0.01–0.33) 0.057
 4. Cognitive problems 1.13 (1.38) 0.63 (0.94) 0.50 (1.13) (0.13–0.87) 0.010
 5. Physical illness or disability 0.57 (0.96) 0.89 (1.18) –0.32 (1.00) (−0.66–0.01) 0.057
 6. Hallucinations and delusions 2.00 (1.41) 1.24 (1.34) 0.76 (1.64) (0.23–1.30) 0.007
 7. Depressed mood 1.35 (1.41) 0.60 (0.94) 0.74 (1.62) (0.17–1.30) 0.012
 8. Other mental and behavior problems 0.97 (1.19) 0.84 (1.19) 0.14 (1.53) (−0.38–0.65) 0.595
 9. Problems with relationships 2.11 (1.16) 1.58 (1.13) 0.53 (1.08) (0.17–0.88) 0.005
 10. Problems in activities of daily living 1.71 (1.45) 1.53 (1.22) 0.18 (1.45) (−0.29–0.66) 0.438
 11. Problems with living conditions 0.92 (1.28) 0.45 (0.76) 0.47 (1.43) (0.00–0.94) 0.048
 12. Problems with occupation and activities 1.05 (1.14) 0.97 (1.33) 0.08 (1.53) (−0.42–0.58) 0.752
Practical and Social Functioning Scale (PSF)b
 A. Care for health 4.62 (3.54) 8.18 (2.51) 3.56 (3.43) (2.45–4.68) <0.001
 B. Self-care/clothes 6.77 (3.48) 8.18 (2.51) 1.41 (2.91) (0.47–2.35) 0.004
 C. Meals and food 6.33 (3.30) 7.79 (2.93) 1.46 (3.55) (0.31–2.61) 0.014
 D. Care for belongings 6.82 (3.42) 8.28 (2.08) 1.46 (2.94) (0.51–2.41) 0.004
 E. Managing finances 7.10 (3.14) 8.13 (3.14) 1.03 (3.06) (0.03–2.02) 0.043
 F. Use of transportation 5.05 (3.33) 6.18 (3.49) 1.13 (2.89) (0.19–2.07) 0.020
 G. Social contact 5.74 (3.49) 6.13 (3.21) 0.38 (3.13) (−0.63–1.40) 0.448
 H. Conversations 5.82 (3.08) 8.38 (2.86) 2.56 (2.56) (1.73–3.39) <0.001
 I. Ability to work 5.85 (3.11) 7.38 (3.23) 1.54 (3.49) (0.41–2.67) 0.009
 J. Leisure activities 4.31 (3.02) 5.51 (2.68) 1.21 (3.11) (0.20–2-21) 0.020
Global Assessment Scale (Split GAF)b
 GAF symptoms 32 (13) 45 (20) 13 (19) (7–20) <0.001
 GAF functioning 36 (11) 47 (18) 11 (18) (517) <0.001
  1. aRated retrospectively based on patient records prior to the follow-up study interview
  2. bScores for the BPRS-E range from 1 (none) to 7 (extremely severe). Scores for the HoNOS range from 0 (no problem) to 4 (severe to very severe problem). Scores for the PSF range from 0 to 10 (sum of five items of functioning rated 0–2, where 0 is “not true”, 1 is “partly true or true part of the time”, and 2 is “true or true the whole time”). Scores for the GAF range from 1 (as severe as possible) to 100 (as well as possible)