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Table 5 Multivariate linear random effects models predicting psychiatric bed rates b

From: Institutionalization of deinstitutionalization: a cross-national analysis of mental health system reform

Independent variable 1 2 3 4 5 6
Innovators   1.23*   0.51   1.09*
   (0.37)   (0.97)   (0.25)
Non-adopters   -0.09   1.25*   -0.02
   (0.41)   (0.34)   (0.30)
Mental health plan -0.02 0.00 -0.28* -0.16 -0.07 -0.05
  (0.08) (0.09) (0.12) (0.12) (0.07) (0.08)
Mental health law 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.20* 0.20*
  (0.10) (0.11) (0.12) (0.12) (0.08) (0.08)
Log of psychiatrists 0.27* 0.26* 0.23+ 0.23+ 0.25* 0.25*
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.12) (0.12) (0.08) (0.08)
Log of nurses 0.27* 0.26* 0.21* 0.23* 0.25* 0.25*
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.09) (0.09) (0.05) (0.05)
Log of psychologists -0.03 -0.02 0.16 0.15 -0.08 -0.07
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.17) (0.17) (0.07) (0.07)
Log of social workers 0.02 0.01 -0.15 -0.14 0.03 0.03
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.13) (0.13) (0.06) (0.06)
Mental-primary care 1.36+ 1.43+ -0.60 -0.63 0.61 0.67
  (0.76) (0.76) (0.99) (0.96) (0.42) (0.42)
Community care -0.05 -0.06 -0.20 -0.18 0.06 0.04
  (0.15) (0.16) (0.26) (0.26) (0.13) (0.13)
User and family assocs -0.40 -0.48 -0.41 -0.32 -0.41 -0.47
  (0.35) (0.37) (0.42) (0.39) (0.31) (0.32)
NGO’s -0.01 -0.04 0.13 0.87 0.17 0.18
  (0.42) (0.53) (0.78) (0.66) (0.44) (0.50)
Health info. tech. 0.16+ 0.18+ -0.03 -0.05 0.05 0.06
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.13) (0.13) (0.07) (0.07)
Log of MNS disorders 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.16 0.05 0.05
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.14) (0.14) (0.07) (0.07)
Pharmaceutical:Health spending -0.02 -0.02 -0.08 -0.02 0.07 -0.02
  (0.01) (0.01) (0.17) (0.02) (0.10) (0.01)
Health spending (%GDP) -0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.04 -0.04 -0.03
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.05) (0.05) (0.03) (0.03)
World Bank income group 0.19 0.18 -0.02 -0.05 -0.01 0.05
  (0.12) (0.11) (0.02) (0.17) (0.01) (0.10)
Log of disasters -0.09+ -0.09+ -0.05 -0.02 -0.10* -0.10*
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.08) (0.08) (0.05) (0.05)
Instances of war 0.18 0.18 0.45* 0.45* 0.31* 0.31*
  (0.20) (0.20) (0.22) (0.22) (0.14) (0.14)
Ethnolinguistic fractionalization -0.25 -0.27 0.07 0.03 -0.25 -0.27
  (0.22) (0.21) (0.26) (0.24) (0.18) (0.18)
Political imprisonment 0.12+ 0.12+ 0.13 0.11 0.10* 0.10+
  (0.06) (0.07) (0.09) (0.09) (0.05) (0.05)
Government effectiveness -0.02 -0.08 0.45+ 0.34 0.10 0.05
  (0.19) (0.19) (0.24) (0.25) (0.13) (0.13)
Constant 0.52 0.58 1.61 0.11 1.93+ 1.94
  (1.37) (1.53) (1.91) (1.80) (1.09) (1.22)
Number of observations 117 117 118 118 131 131
Breusch-Pagan chibar2(01)   20.08*   25.34*   25.71*
   0.00   0.00   0.00
Hausman chi2(13)   8.75*   14.27*   4.36*
   0.00   0.00   0.00
  1. +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05.
  2. bModels 1 and 2 pertain to mental hospital beds, 3 and 4 to general hospital beds, and 5 and 6 to overall bed rates. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. ‘Late adopters’ is the reference category against which innovators and non-adopters were compared to. It is a combination of early adopters, early majority, and late majority in Table 4.