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Table 5 Behaviour change technique[15] examples to address behaviour change in community pharmacists’ provision of mental health services

From: A theory-informed approach to mental health care capacity building for pharmacists

Behaviour change technique[15] Examples of strategies used
Provide information about others’ approval Use contact-based education with people with lived experience of mental illnesses to discuss what experiences have been positive and negative related to pharmacy practice.
Provide normative information about others’ behaviours Discuss best practice and what pharmacists are doing for gold-standard care in mental health.
Facilitate social comparisons Drawing attention to one or more pharmacists’ behaviours and performance in doing educational outreach.
Goal setting (behaviour) Encourage pharmacists to make resolutions such as increasing monitoring and follow-up of patients receiving medications for mental illnesses.
Set graded tasks Prior to delivering an educational intervention in the community, plan to perform tasks in sequence such as meet ahead of time with a community member to plan the event and organize resources prior to the event.
Action planning Help pharmacists to develop SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound) goals around how often and when to screen for sleep problems, to use health system navigation support tools, and to work with community organizations to schedule education sessions.
Provide instruction on how to perform the behaviour Tell and show pharmacists how to use health system navigation support tools.
Model/demonstrate the behaviour Physically demonstrate through a case-based or simulated patient exercise the techniques for interviewing, assessing, and monitoring a patient with a mental health concern.
Provide information on where and when to perform the behaviour Tell pharmacists about when and where to engage in related More Than Meds activities in their pharmacy.
Provide information on how to perform the behaviour Discuss and use simulated patients to tell pharmacists how to perform the behaviours. Use computerized reminders on patient files to remind pharmacists about the program.
Teach to use prompts/cues Use More Than Meds marketing and advertising materials in the pharmacy as a reminder to engage in the behaviours.
Use of follow-up prompts Group emails to pharmacists reminding them of program principles, activities, and requirements.
Environmental restructuring Alter aspects of the pharmacy to be able to accommodate More Than Meds materials in patient waiting area and in dispensary resource and how to better meet needs of patients with lived experience of mental illness in private counseling areas.
Time management Discuss as a group how to manage time within workflow demands.