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Table 2 Perinatal factors of children with the Internalizing Problems (IP) or with the Externalizing Problems (EP) compared to controls

From: Associations between maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood

  Controls without IP (N = 959) IP (N = 44) Controls vs. IP Controls without EP (N = 973) EP (N = 30) Controls vs. EP
  % % UOR d (95% CI) p % % UOR d (95% CI) p
Maternal age at pregnancy           
  Below 30 67.8 61.9 ref    68.0 55.2 ref   
  30 years or above 32.2 38.1 1.30 (0.69-2.46) 0.06 (-0.09-0.21) 0.423 32.0 44.8 1.72 (0.82-3.63) 0.13 (-0.05-0.31) 0.152
Unwanted pregnancy 28.3 29.0 1.68 (0.85-3.09) 0.12 (-0.03-0.27) 0.144 28.1 53.3 2.76 (1.28-5.95) 0.24 (0.06-0.42) 0.010*
No regular prenatal check-ups 10.8 9.3 0.84 (0.30-2.41) -0.04 (-0.21-0.29) 0.750 10.8 10.0 0.95 (0.28-3.21) -0.01 (-0.31-0.29) 0.939
Maternal alcohol intake 3.9 6.8 1.79 (0.53-6.04) 0.14 (-0.16-0.44) 0.349 3.9 10.0 2.76 (0.80-9.49) 0.24 (-0.78-1.26) 0.108
Severe stress during pregnancy 32.1 61.4 3.36 (1.80-6.25)) 0.29 (0.14-0.44) <0.001** 32.7 56.7 2.69 (1.29-5.61) 0.24 (0.06-0.42) 0.008**
Change in primary care taker 14.6 18.6 1.34 (0.61-2.95) 0.07 (-0.12-0.26) 0.467 14.8 13.3 0.89 (0.31-2.58) -0.03 (-0.29-0.23) 0.815
Primary care taker other than mother 21.0 20.5 0.97 (0.46-2.06) -0.01 (-0.20-0.18) 0.932 20.8 26.7 1.39 (0.61-3.16) 0.08 (-0.12-0.28) 0.438
Postpartum depression           
  None 73.4 52.6 ref    72.5 68.0 ref   
  Very mild to mild 17.4 26.3 2.10 (0.96-4.60) 0.18 (-0.01-0.37) 0.063 17.7 24.0 1.45 (0.56-3.74) 0.09 (-0.15-0.23) 0.444
  Moderate to severe 9.2 21.1 3.19 (1.36-7.53) 0.28 (0.07-0.49) 0.008** 9.8 8.0 0.87 (0.20-3.84) -0.03 (-0.39-0.33) 0.853
  1. Results of binary logistic regression analyses; UOR, unadjusted odd ratio; ref, reference group; *p <0.05.**p <0.01.