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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression model assessing working status among Ghanaian female and male adults ¥

From: Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity

  Females Males
  (N = 2,897) (N = 2,494)
  Unemployed§ Unemployed§
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age 0.97 (0.95,0.98)* 0.99 (0.98, 1.01)
Marital Status   
Married 0.46 (0.25, 0.84)* 0.20 (0.11, 0.35)*
 Separated/Divorced 0.61 (0.26, 1.45) 0.30 (0.10, 0.89)*
 Widowed 0.44 (0.13, 1.47) --
 Never Married Reference Reference
Education   
 None 2.29 (1.13, 4.66)* 2.08 (1.07, 4.03)*
 Primary or Less 1.60 (0.75, 3.44) 1.20 (0.57, 2.52)
 Middle 1.86 (0.93, 3.74) 0.94 (0.49, 1.82)
 Secondary and Above Reference Reference
Region   
 Western 1.60 (0.546, 4.78) 1.49 (0.45, 4.91)
 Central 0.45 (0.13, 1.52) 0.23 (0.07, 0.82)*
 Greater Accra Reference Reference
 Volta 3.52 (1.02, 12.15)* 0.28 (0.06, 1.27)
 Eastern 2.71 (0.87, 8.45) 0.34 (0.07, 1.70)
 Ashanti 2.48 (0.79, 7.74) 0.74 (0.14, 3.79)
 Brong Ahafo 1.42 (0.37, 5.42) 0.77 (0.13, 4.74)
 Northern 2.75 (0.91, 8.32) 0.46 (0.15, 1.46)
 Upper East 13.78 (4.398, 43.27)* 2.53 (0.68, 9.41)
 Upper West 3.27 (0.88, 12.17) 0.88 (0.19, 3.97)
General Health   
 Very Healthy Reference Reference
 Somewhat Healthy 1.09 (0.698, 1.71) 1.10 (0.55, 2.20)
 Unhealthy 1.83 (1.00, 3.35)* 1.23 (0.55, 2.75)
Religion   
 Christian Reference Reference
 Muslim 0.69 (0.41, 1.16) 0.80 (0.44, 1.46)
 No Religion 1.44 (0.75, 2.79) 0.90 (0.43, 1.87)
 Traditional 0.84 (0.52, 1.36) 1.17 (0.65, 2.11)
Wealth Quintiles   
 Lowest 20% 7.49 (3.66, 15.35)* 11.96 (5.16, 27.72)*
 21–40% 9.39 (4.58, 19.24)* 6.78 (2.77, 16.47)*
 41–60% 2.41 (1.07, 5.40)* 3.54 (1.00, 12.53)*
 61–80% 0.67 (0.28, 1.62) 1.50 (0.54, 4.18)
 Highest 20% Reference Reference
Psychological Distress   
 mild/No Distress Reference Reference
 Moderate 2.14 (1.46, 3.14)* 2.02 (1.17, 3.49)*
 Severe 3.84 (2.47, 5.97)* 12.41 (7.23, 21.28)*
  1. § Reference level of logistic model: Employed individual.
  2. ¥ p-value for interaction between sex and severe psychological distress: 0.004.
  3. *Indicates that OR is significant at 0.05 level.