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Table 2 Sample characteristics: pre-reform and post-reform groups from the SMI-O sample

From: Aging of severely mentally ill patients first admitted before or after the reorganization of psychiatric care in Sweden

Variable Pre-reform Post-reform Test of difference
N 451 198  
Female 53.66% 62.64% χ2(df = 1) = 4.25, p < 0.05
Mean birthyear (SD) 1937 (11) 1937 (11)  
Diagnosis at First SMI-O Survey χ2 (df = 5) = 126.55, p < 0.01
 Drug addiction 2.56% 6.55%
 Psychosis 52.56% 30.33%
 Depression 22.16% 25.41%
 Neurosis 11.65% 26.23%
 Personality disorder 6.53% 6.56%
 Other 4.54% 4.92%
Civil status at age 65 χ2 (df = 3) = 10.54, p < 0.05
 Married 15.36% 23.48%
 Never married 46.43% 34.78%
 Divorced 33.21% 30.43%
 Widowed 5.00% 11.30%
Education χ2 (df = 6) = 3.01, ns
 Less than 9 years 45.39% 41.48%
 9 years 12.53% 13.07%
 Up to 2 years secondary education 26.48% 25.57%
 3 years secondary education 4.73% 6.82%
 Less than 3 years post-secondary 6.86% 7.39%
 More than 3 years post-secondary 3.78% 5.68%
 Post-graduate education 0.24% 0.00%
Mean year of first institutionalization (SD) 1975.9 (5.74) 1992.8 (6.99) t(647) = 32.44, p < 0.01
Mean age at first institutionalization (SD) 38.46 (11.92) 54.55 (12.30) t(647) = 15.24, p < 0.01
Mean number of stays at institution (SD) 47.96 (46.16) 44.74 (47.04) t(647) = 0.82, ns
Mean total years institutionalization (SD) 4.26 (6.97) 0.48 (0.62) t(647) = 7.64, p < 0.01
Mean length of stay: days (SD) 99.37 (329.4) 10.59 (23.79) t(647) = 3.80, p < 0.01
Mean age at first SMI-O survey (SD) 61.83 (11.27) 63.45 (11.25) t(647) = 1.68, ns