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Table 1 Comparison of patients between voluntary (VH) and involuntary hospitalization (IH)

From: Why did China’s mental health law have a limited effect on decreasing rates of involuntary hospitalization?

n (%) Overall
N = 10,818b
VH group
2946 (27.2)
IH group
7872 (72.8)
IH rates
(%)
χ2 p
Gender, female 4975 (44.3) 1365 (46.3) 3430 (43.6) 71.5 6.626 0.010
Age, yearsa      108.649 0.000
 < 25   711 (24.1) 1955 (24.8) 73.3   
 25–34   611 (20.7) 2021 (25.7) 76.8   
 34–47   643 (21.8) 2024 (25.7) 75.9   
 ≥ 47   981 (33.3) 1872 (23.8) 65.6   
Marriedc 4952 (45.8) 1496 (50.8) 3456 (43.9) 69.8 41.181 0.000
Local residence 4977 (46.0) 1306 (44.3) 3671 (46.6) 73.8 4.575 0.032
Employed 3208 (30.0) 853 (29.3) 2355 (30.3) 73.4 0.994 0.319
Insurance covered 4235 (39.1) 1076 (36.5) 3159 (40.1) 74.6 11.698 0.001
Length of stays, daysa      446.007 0.000
 < 17   837 (28.4) 1142 (14.5) 57.7   
 17–32   740 (25.1) 1414 (18.0) 65.6   
 32–56   787 (26.7) 2491 (31.6) 76.0   
 ≥ 56   582 (19.8) 2825 (35.9) 82.9   
Previous hospitalizations      5.121 0.163
 1 8109 (75.0) 2248 (76.3) 5861 (74.5) 72.3   
 2 1730 (16.0) 441 (15.0) 1289 (16.4) 74.5   
 3 556 (5.1) 139 (4.7) 417 (5.3) 75.0   
 4 or more 423 (3.9) 118 (4.0) 305 (3.9) 72.1   
Diagnosis groupd      624.091 0.000
 Major depressive disorder 1375 (12.7) 597 (20.3) 778 (9.9) 56.6   
 SCZ 4460 (41.2) 1042 (35.4) 3418 (43.4) 76.6   
 Bipolar disorder 3768 (34.0) 750 (25.5) 2890 (36.9) 76.7   
 Substance-related disorder 908 (8.4) 288 (9.8) 620 (7.9) 68.3   
 Stress and somatic disorders 405 (3.7) 269 (9.1) 136 (1.7) 33.6   
The year at admission      10.568 0.014
 2014 2884 (26.7) 818 (27.8) 2066 (26.2) 71.6   
 2015 3623 (33.5) 1027 (34.9) 2596 (33.0) 71.7   
 2016 3074 (28.4) 791 (26.8) 2283 (29.0) 74.3   
 2017 1237 (11.4) 310 (10.5) 927 (11.8) 74.9   
  1. aCategorized by quartiles: age (37.49 ± 15.08 year-old), Length of stays (47.53 ± 68.94 days)
  2. bSystem-missing value: marriage, n = 3(< 0.01%); Employed, n = 119 (1.1%)
  3. cUnmarried: single (n = 5133), divorced (n = 571), widowed (n = 159)
  4. dSCZ Schizophrenia spectrum disorders; Substance-related disorder (F10-F19 in ICD-10); Stress and somatic disorders (F40-F48 in ICD-10)