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Table 4 Sub-group analysis

From: Effectiveness of relaxation techniques ‘as an active ingredient of psychological interventions’ to reduce distress, anxiety and depression in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable No. of studies SMD (95% CI) I2 Q-value df p-value
Anxiety
 Risk of bias
  High 40 − 0.41 (− 0.57 to − 0.26) 80.73 0.64 1 0.43
  Low 6 − 0.25 (− 0.62 to 0.11) 57.36    
 Mode of delivery
  Mixed 1 − 0.13 (− 0.87 to 0.62) 0% 3.0 2 0.22
  Onsite 33 − 0.47 (− 0.64 to − 0.30) 83.10%    
  Technology 12 − 0.22 (− 0.48 to 0.04) 31.54%    
 Format of delivery
  Group 28 − 0.30 (− 0.48 to − 0.11) 48.56% 2.72 2 0.26
  Individual 15 − 0.53 (− 0.77 to − 0.29) 90.84%    
  Mixed 1 − 0.13 (− 0.97 to 0.72) 0%    
 Type of therapy
  Multicomponent 28 − 0.38 (− 0.56 to − 0.21) 80.59% 0.004 1 0.95
  Relaxation only 18 − 0.39 (− 0.62 to − 0.17) 77.73%    
 Booster sessions
  No 37 − 0.38 (− 0.54 to − 0.22) 70.76% 0.90 2 0.34
  Yes 5 − 0.59 (− 1.00 to − 0.18) 94.96%    
 Intervention focus
  Preventive 24 − 0.38 (− 0.56 to − 0.19) 74.81% 1.07 2 0.59
  Treatment 21 − 0.42 (− 0.62 to − 0.22) 83.70%    
  Both 1 0.25 (− 1.02 to 1.51) 0%    
Depression
 Risk of bias
  High 40 − 0.30 (− 0.55 to − 0.16) 77.92% 0.68 1 0.41
  Low 10 − 0.18 (− 0.44 to 0.09) 68.35%    
 Mode of delivery
  Mixed 1 − 0.23 (− 1.02 to 0.56) 0 0.15 2 0.93
  Onsite 38 − 0.29 (− 0.44 to − 0.14) 70.79%    
  Technology 11 − 0.24 (− 0.49 to 0.02) 57.46%    
 Format of delivery
  Group 33 − 0.21 (− 0.37 to − 0.05) 70.65% 1.88 2 0.39
  Individual 14 − 0.41 (− 0.65 to − 0.17) 86.06%    
  Mixed 1 − 0.23 (− 1.032 to 0.57) 0%    
 Type of therapy       
  Multicomponent 29 − 0.26 (− 0.34 to − 0.06) 70.07% 0.14 1 0.71
  Relaxation only 21 − 0.27 (− 0.45 to − 0.08) 83.02%    
 Booster sessions
  No 42 − 0.31 (− 0.47 to − 0.19) 78.64% 1.75 1 0.19
  Yes 4 − 0.03 (− 0.45 to 0.39) 67.58%    
 Intervention focus
  Both 1 − 0.13 (− 1.36 to 1.10) 0% 0.65 2 0.72
  Preventive 26 − 0.32 (− 0.49 to − 0.15) 79.92%    
  Treatment 23 − 0.23 (− 0.41 to − 0.15) 74.10%    
Distress
 Risk of bias
  High 19 − 0.43 (− 0.68 to − 0.17) 86.23% 0.85 1 0.36
  Low 4 − 0.71 (− 1.25 to − 0.16) 0%    
 Mode of delivery
  Mixed 0 −      
  Onsite 16 − 0.62 (− 0.87 to − 0.38) 88.39% 6.28 1 0.01
  Technology 6 − 0.06 (− 0.42 to 0.30) 33.49%    
 Format of delivery
  Group 14 − 0.47 (− 0.78 to − 0.17) 64.06% 2.31 2 0.31
  Individual 6 − 0.64 (− 1.08 to − 0.19) 93.72%    
  Mixed 2 0.02 (− 0.71 to 0.75) 45.24%    
 Type of therapy
  Multicomponent 13 − 0.60 (− 0.90 to − 0.29) 90.07% 1.42 1 0.23
  Relaxation only 10 − 0.30 (− 0.67 to 0.07) 61.69%    
 Booster sessions
  No 19 − 0.38 (− 0.64 to − 0.11) 79.86% 3.28 1 0.07
  Yes 4 − 0.96 (− 1.53 to − 0.39) 95.87%