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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies (N = 65)

From: Effectiveness of relaxation techniques ‘as an active ingredient of psychological interventions’ to reduce distress, anxiety and depression in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sr. No. Study (Author, year Country Sample Trial Design Population Gender/Age, M(SD) Recruitment setting Relaxation Type Clinical outcome
1 (Caldwell et al., 2016) USA 50 RCT University students Both, 18–40 (mean, SD missing) University Relaxation Anxiety
2 (Gold et al., 2017) Australia 100 cRCT School students Both, 13.84 (0.74) School Relaxation Depression
3 (Robledo-Colonia et al., 2012) Cali, Colombia 74 RCT Pregnant women Female, 21 (SD missing) Prenatal Care Services of three Hospitals Relaxation Depression
4 (Harmat et al., 2008) Hungary 65 RCT University students Both, 22.6 (2.83) University Relaxation Depression
5 (Nabkasorn et al., 2006) Thailand 49 RCT Nursing students Female,18.8 (0.7) Not specified Relaxation Depression
6 (Putra et al., 2018) Indonesia 31 RCT School students Female,15–17 (mean, SD missing) School Relaxation Depression
7 (MacMahon & Gross, 1988) USA 69 RCT Juvenile Male, 16.3 (SD missing) Juvenile detention facilities Relaxation Depression
8 (Reynolds & Coats, 1986) California 21 RCT School students Both, 15.65 (SD missing) School Relaxation Depression and anxiety
9 (Roth, 1989) USA 80 RCT College students Both, 20.8 (SD missing) College Relaxation Depression and anxiety
10 (Roth & Holmes, 1987) UK 57 RCT College students Both, 18.9 (1.3) College Relaxation Depression and anxiety
11 (Velasquez et al., 2015) Columbia 125 RCT School age children Not specified Not specified Relaxation Depression and anxiety
12 (Norris et al., 1992) UK 91 RCT School students Both, 16 (SD missing) School Relaxation Depression anxiety and stress
13 (Walsh et al., 2016) USA 64 RCT Students Female, 19.15 (SD missing) Not specified Multicomponent Depression
14 (Raes et al., 2014) Belgium 335 cRCT School students Both, 13- 20 (mean, SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression
15 (Sagon et al., 2018) USA 103 RCT Freshmen university students Both, 18.15 (.46) University Multicomponent Depression
16 (Stasiak et al., 2014) New Zealand 34 Pilot RCT School students Both, 13–18 (mean, SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression
17 (Cui et al., 2016) China 120 RCT College students Both, 19.42 (1.66) College Multicomponent Depression
18 (Felver et al., 2015) USA 47 RCT School students Both, 15 (SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression
19 (Khalsa et al., 2012) USA 100 RCT School Students Both, 16.8 (0.6) School Multicomponent Stress
20 (De Vibe et al., 2013) Norway 288 RCT University students Both, 23 (SD missing) University Multicomponent Stress
21 (De Vibe et al., 2013; Erogul et al., 2014) New York, USA 57 RCT Medical students Both, 23.5 (1.7) College Multicomponent Stress
22 (Phang et al., 2015) Malaysia 75 RCT Medical students Both, 21.14 (1.10) College Multicomponent Stress
23 (Scholten et al., 2016) Netherlands 138 RCT School students Both, 13.90 (.91) School Multicomponent Anxiety
24 (Grassi et al., 2011) Not specified 75 RCT University students Female, 20.86 (1.27) University Multicomponent Anxiety
25 (Dvořáková et al., 2017) USA 107 Pilot RCT College students Both, 18.2 (0.4) College Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
26 (Vázquez et al., 2012) Spain 133 RCT University students Both, 23.3 (SD missing) University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
27 (McGrady et al., 2012) USA 105 RCT First year medical students Both, age not specified Not specified Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
28 (Levin et al., 2017) USA 79 RCT College students Both, 21.61(5.48) College Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
29 (Blake et al., 2018) Australia 123 RCT School students Both, 14.48 (SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
30 (Merry et al., 2012) New Zealand 187 RCT School student Both, 15.6 (SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
31 (Seligman et al., 2007) USA 212 RCT First year undergraduate students Both, age not specified College Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
32 (Kenardy et al., 2003) Australia 74 RCT University students Both, 19.92 (4.78) University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
33 (Seligman et al., 2000) USA 225 RCT University students (1st year under-graduates) Both, age not specified University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
34 (Calear et al., 2009) Australia 1477 cRCT School students Both, 14.34 (0.75) School Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
35 (Chen et al., 2013) China 60 RCT Nursing students Both, 19.5(0.87) University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
36 (Delgado et al., 2010) Not specified 32 RCT University students Female, 18–24 (mean, SD missing) University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
37 (Shapiro et al., 1998) USA 78 RCT Medical students Both, age not specified University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
38 (Astin, 1997) USA 28 RCT University students Both, age not specified University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
39 (Shearer et al., 2015) USA 46 RCT University students Both, age not specified University Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
40 (Hilyer et al., 1982) USA 43 RCT School students Male, 15–18 (mean, SD missing) School Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
41 (Melnyk et al., 2009) USA 47 RCT Adolescents Both, 14–16 (mean, SD missing) Not specified Multicomponent Depression and anxiety
42 (Ștefan et al., 2018) Romania 46 RCT College students Female, 18.92 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Anxiety and stress
43 (Chiauzzi et al., 2008) USA 157 RCT College students Both, 18–24 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Anxiety and stress
44 (Saravanan & Kingston, 2014) Malaysia 66 RCT Medical students Both, 19 (1.04) University Multicomponent Anxiety and stress
45 (Fleming et al., 2012) New Zealand 30 RCT School students Male, 14.9 (.79) School Multicomponent Anxiety and stress
46 (Deckro et al., 2002) USA 90 RCT College students Both, 24 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Anxiety and stress
47 (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2017) USA 243 RCT College students Both, 18–21 (mean, SD missing) College Multicomponent Depression, Anxiety and stress
48 (Zhang et al., 2018) China 62 RCT University students Both, 18.41(2.01) University Multicomponent Depression and stress
49 (Bluth et al., 2016) North Carolina ( USA) 23 RCT School students Both, 16.8 (1.3) School Multicomponent Depression, anxiety and stress
50 (Flett et al., 2019) New Zealand 208 RCT University students Not specified, 20.08(2.8) University Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
51 (Song & Lindquist, 2015) South Korea 44 RCT Undergraduate nursing students Both, 19.6 (1.7) Not specified Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
52 (Rentala et al., 2019) India 209 RCT College students Female, 16–19 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Depression, anxiety and stress
53 (Hall et al., 2018) China 54 RCT University students Both, 22.30 (2.63) University Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
54 (Hindman et al., 2014) USA 34 RCT University students Both, 22.35 (SD missing) University Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
55 (Levin et al., 2019) USA 39 Pilot trial RCT University students Both, 20.51 (2.73) College Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
56 (Ellis et al., 2011) Australia 26 RCT University students Both, 19.67 (1.66) University Multicomponent Depression, anxiety, and stress
57 (Gallego et al., 2015) Spain 53 RCT University students Both, 20.07 (SD missing) University Multicomponent Depression, anxiety and stress
58 (Berger et al., 1988) USA 232 RCT College students Both, 20 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Depression anxiety and stress
59 (Van Aubel et al., 2020) Neatherland 55 RCT General population Both, 21.36 (2.39) Community Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
60 (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2016) USA 314 RCT College students Both, 18–21 (mean, SD missing) College Multicomponent Depression, anxiety and stress
61 (Warnecke et al., 2011) Australia 84 RCT University students Both, 23.92 (3.2) University Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
62 (Moir et al., 2016) New Zealand 402 RCT University students Both, 21 (SD missing) University Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
63 (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2019) USA 382 RCT College students Both, 21.3 (SD missing) College Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
64 (Levin et al., 2016) USA 234 RCT University students Both, 20.51(2.73) University Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
65 (Hazlett-Stevens & Oren, 2017) USA 92 RCT College students Both, 22.1 (4.7) College Multicomponent Depression and Anxiety
  1. RCT: Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT); cRCT: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial