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Table 1 Descriptive characteristic of the two samples at baseline before and after PSW

From: The impact of Timothy's Law on hospitalization among patients with mental health conditions in New York State

  Before PSW After PSW
  NY CA   NY CA  
  2006, N = 1237 2006, N = 3028   2006, N = 1211 2006, N = 2345  
Variables Mean STD Mean STD SMD Mean STD Mean STD SMD
Age 39.16 14.93 37.68 14.35 0.101 38.37 14.75 38.42 14.06 −0.003
Length of stay 16.73 18.73 14.12 15.96 0.150 16.06 17.98 14.71 16.74 0.078
Length of stay per hospitalization 11.72 13.17 8.52 8.27 0.291 11.19 12.24 8.63 8.49 0.243
  count % count %   count % count %  
Race or ethnicity
White 966 79.8% 1838 78.4% 0.034 963 79.38% 1838 78.38% 0.025
Black 147 12.1% 148 6.3% 0.202 98 8.08% 148 6.31% 0.069
Hispanic 45 3.7% 269 11.5% −0.298 105 8.67% 269 11.47% −0.093
Asian or pacific Islander 21 1.7% 56 2.4% −0.049 25 2.07% 56 2.39% -0.022
Native American 4 0.3% 2 0.1% 0.045 2 0.18% 2 0.09% 0.025
Other 28 2.31% 32 1.36% 0.071 20 1.63% 32 1.36% 0.022
Female 760 61.4% 1682 55.5% 0.120 776 64.1% 1484 63.3% 0.017
Bipolar 448 36.2% 1133 37.4% −0.025 436 36.0% 882 37.6% −0.033
Schizophrenia 263 21.3% 616 20.3% 0.025 231 19.1% 457 19.5% −0.010
Depression 513 41.5% 1255 41.4% 0.002 515 42.5% 992 42.3% 0.004
Asthma 43 3.5% 154 5.1% −0.079 67 5.51% 121 5.17% 0.015
Sleep 3 0.2% 45 1.5% −0.142 19 1.57% 24 1.02% 0.049
Thyroid 33 2.7% 106 3.5% −0.046 39 3.20% 81 3.46% −0.014
Obesity 28 2.3% 130 4.3% −0.112 48 4.00% 92 3.94% 0.003
Tobacco 36 2.9% 182 6.0% −0.151 68 5.60% 132 5.61% 0.000
TBI 1 0.1% 2 0.1% 0.000 1 0.11% 2 0.09% 0.006
Cardiac dysrhythmia 14 1.1% 15 0.5% 0.067 9 0.75% 18 0.75% 0.000
Cancer 3 0.2% 4 0.1% 0.026 1 0.11% 2 0.09% 0.006
Congestive heart failure 4 0.3% 4 0.1% 0.045 3 0.23% 6 0.25% −0.004
Coronary artery disease 15 1.2% 13 0.4% 0.090 9 0.76% 19 0.81% −0.006
Diabetes 61 4.9% 99 3.3% 0.081 47 3.86% 94 3.99% −0.007
Hyperlipidemia 38 3.1% 112 3.7% −0.033 43 3.51% 86 3.66% −0.008
Hypertension 82 6.6% 249 8.2% −0.061 99 8.21% 190 8.09% 0.004
Kidney 4 0.3% 4 0.1% 0.045 3 0.25% 6 0.24% 0.002
Liver 2 0.2% 5 0.2% 0.000 3 0.28% 5 0.21% 0.014
Lung 60 4.9% 186 6.1% −0.053 80 6.60% 150 6.38% 0.009
Peripheral artery disease 1 0.1% 1 0.0% 0.045 1 0.06% 1 0.06% 0.000
Stroke 1 0.1% 3 0.1% 0.000 1 0.08% 3 0.11% −0.010
Alcohol dependency 113 9.1% 392 12.9% −0.122 144 11.88% 292 12.45% −0.017
Anxiety 74 6.0% 202 6.7% −0.029 80 6.64% 161 6.86% −0.009
Dementia 1 0.1% 2 0.1% 0.000 1 0.06% 2 0.08% −0.008
PTSD 35 2.8% 112 3.7% −0.051 40 3.31% 89 3.78% −0.025
Substance dependency 109 8.8% 314 10.4% −0.054 126 10.37% 239 10.18% 0.006