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Table 2 Cultural adaptations of interventions

From: Cultural adaptation of psychological interventions for people with mental disorders delivered by lay health workers in Africa: scoping review and expert consultation

Adaptation principle Bolton et al. 2003. Uganda Bass et al. 2006. Uganda Bolton et al. 2007 Chibanda et al. 2011. Zimbabwe Petersen et al. 2011. South Africa Ertl et al. 2011. Uganda Murray et al. 2013. Zambia Petersen et al. 2014. South Africa Chibanda et al. 2016. Zimbabwe Munetsi et al. 2018. Zimbabwe
Where the Intervention were first developed USA USA USA UK USA Australia USA USA UK UK
Language (translation in local language)  +   +   +   +   −   −   −   −   +   + 
People (cultural competences of therapists)  +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   +   + 
Metaphors (use of stories and local examples, use local symbols/idioms)  +   +   +   +   −   −   −   −   +   − 
Content (incorporation of local practices into treatment)  +   +   +   +   +   −   −   +   +   + 
Concepts (address stressors, social concepts, religious concepts)  +   +   +   +   +   −   −   +   +   + 
Goals (clients-derived goals)  +   +   +   +   −   +   −   −   +   − 
Methods (adaptation of training and supervision methods, i.e., to match LHWs experience levels)  +   +   +   +   −   +   −   −   +   + 
Context: Ensure acceptability (community engagement, ensuring fit with health/illness narratives)  +   +   +   +   −   +   −   −   +   − 
Security: Specific adaptation relating to conflict-affected setting (i.e., safety training, safety protocols)  −   −   −   −   −   −   −   −   −   −