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Table 3 Themes on the perceived causes of mental health problems and their frequency of mention

From: Perceived causes of mental illness and views on appropriate care pathways among Indonesians

Extrinsic factors
‘Intensity of pressure from family or problems’ (n = 21)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
14 7 7 6 7 1
66.70% 33.30% 33.30% 28.60% 33.30% 4.60%
‘Inability to cope with stress’ (n = 17)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
12 5 7 4 5 1
70.60% 29.40% 41.20% 23.50% 29.40% 5.90%
‘Quantity of problems’ (n = 4)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
3 1 1 1 1 1
75% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25%
‘Economic or environmental factor’ (n = 8)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
4 4 3 1 2 2
50% 50% 37.50% 12.50% 25% 25%
‘Lack of social support’ (n = 4)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
4 0 3 1 0 0
100%   75% 25%   
Intrinsic factors
‘Thinking too much’ (n = 22)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
13 9 6 7 7 2
59.10% 40.90% 27.30% 31.80% 31.80% 9.10%
‘Congenital defects or hereditary factor’ (n = 3)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
1 2 2 0 0 1
33.30% 66.70% 66.70%    33.30%
‘Inability to control emotions’ (n = 2)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
1 1 1 1 0 0
50% 50% 50% 50%   
‘Issue of the mind’ (n = 5)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
4 1 2 2 1 0
80% 20% 40% 40% 20%  
‘Lack of mental strength’ (n = 3)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
2 1 0 2 1 0
66.70% 33.30%   66.70% 33.30%  
‘Resentment from unmet needs or desires’ (n = 7)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
4 3 3 1 3 0
57.14% 42.86% 42.86% 14.28% 42.86%  
‘Negative thoughts’ (n = 2)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
2 0 1 1 0 0
100%   50% 50%   
‘Narrowmindedness’ (n = 1)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
1 0 0 0 1 0
100%     100%  
Spiritual factors
‘Daydreaming and satan’ (n = 5)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
3 2 1 2 1 1
60% 40% 20% 40% 20% 20%
‘Lack of interaction with god’ (n = 2)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
2 0 1 1 0 0
100%   50% 50%   
‘Santet (black magic)’ (n = 2)
Female Male 18–29 30–44 45–60 above 60
1 1 2 0 0 0
50% 50% 100%