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Table. 1 Selected demographic, economic and primary (mental) healthcare system indicators in India

From: The architecture of the primary mental healthcare system for older people in India: what public policies tell us

Indicator Data
Demographic and socioeconomic  
 Total population (2018) [107] 1,352,642,000
 Females as a % of the total population (2018) [107] 48
 Total population living in rural areas in % (2011) [18] 69
 Population 60 + years (millions of inhabitants in 2011) [18] 104
 Females 60 + years in % (2011) [18] 52.2
 Population 60 + years living in rural areas in % (2011) [18] 71
 Population 60 + years expected in 2050 (in million) [108] 330
 Life expectancy at birth for both sexes (2018) [107] 68
 Effective literacy rate in % of the total population (2011) [18] 73
 Effective literacy rate in % of the population 60 + (2011) [18] 44
 Human Development Index (2019) [109] 0.645
 Gini coefficient (2010–2018) [109] 37.8
Public health expenditure  
 Gross domestic product (GDP, US$ per capita in 2019) [110] 2099.60
 Domestic general government health expenditure (GGHE-D) as a percentage of general government expenditure (GGE) in % (2017) [107] 3.4
 Domestic private expenditure on health as a % of current health expenditure (2018) [111] 72.4
 Mental health expenditure as a % of the total health budget (2011) [46]a 0.06
 Government health expenditure on primary care as a % of total health expenditure (2016–17) [112] 52.1
Characteristics of the health system  
 Population with health coverage in % (here of % covered by public insurance; 2017–2018) [113] 37.2 (78)
 PHC with gatekeeping function to specialized care [114] Limited gate keeping function
 Registration at a PHC centre Yes
 Predominant mode of provision in primary and specialized care Private
 Predominant organization in specialized ambulatory care Hospital outpatient departments
 Portfolio of services defined at the central level Yes
 Freedom of choice of doctors in primary care Yes
Mental health facilities  
 Mental health outpatient facilities (per 100,000, absolute number in parentheses, 2011) [46] 0.33 (4000)
 Psychiatric beds in general hospitals (per 100,000, absolute number in parentheses, 2011) [46] 0.82 (10,000)
 Mental hospitals (per 100,000, absolute number in parentheses, 2011) [46] 0.004 (43)
 Beds in mental hospitals (per 100,000, absolute number in parentheses, 2011) [46] 1.47 (17,835)
(Mental) health resources  
 Psychiatrists (per 100,000; 2011) [46] 0.3
 Nurses (per 100,000; 2011) [46] 0.17
 Psychologists (per 100,000; 2011) [46] 0.05
 Social workers (per 100,000; 2011) [46] 0.03
  1. Due to the federal system of governance in India, each of the 35 states and union territories/administrations has its own mental health budget; the number refers to the Central Government