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Table 1 Comparisons of participants with and without depression

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with depression in the hill tribe population aged 40 years and older in northern Thailand

Characteristics n (%) Depression χ2 p-value
Yes No
Total 601 (100.00) 235 (39.10) 366 (60.90) N/A N/A
Sex
 Male 215 (35.77) 72 (33.49) 143 (66.51) 4.42 0.035*
 Female 386 (64.23) 163 (42.22) 223 (57.78)   
Tribe
 Akha 281 (46.76) 84 (29.89) 197 (70.11) 19.48  < 0.001*
 Lahu 201 (33.44) 92 (45.77) 109 (54.23)   
 Mien 66 (10.98) 34 (51.52) 32 (48.48)   
 Lisu 53 (8.82) 25 (47.17) 28 (52.83)   
Age (years)
 40–59 372 (61.90) 146 (39.25) 226 (60.75) 0.01 0.926
 ≥ 60 229 (38.10) 89 (38.86) 140 (61.14)   
(max = 40, min = 88, mean = 56.91, SD = 10.34)
Religion
 Buddhist 258 (42.93) 124 (48.06) 134 (51.94) 15.24  < 0.001*
 Christian 343 (57.07) 111 (32.36) 232 (67.64)   
Marital status
 Single 142 (23.63) 64 (45.07) 78 (54.93) 2.78 0.095
 Married 459 (76.37) 171 (37.25) 288 (62.75)   
Education
 Not educated beyond primary school 575 (95.67) 222 (38.61) 353 (61.39) 1.35 0.244
 High school and higher 26 (4.33) 13 (50.00) 13 (50.00)   
Having an income
 No 308 (51.25) 125 (40.58) 183 (59.42) 0.58 0.445
 Yes 293 (48.75) 110 (37.54) 183 (62.46)   
Family debt
 No 246 (40.93) 78 (31.71) 168 (68.29) 9.56 0.002*
 Yes 355 (59.07) 157 (44.23) 198 (55.77)   
Living situation
 With family member 565 (94.01) 219 (38.76) 346 (61.24) 0.45 0.498
 Alone 36 (5.99) 16 (44.44) 20 (55.56)   
History of substance use
 No 369 (61.40) 130 (35.23) 239 (64.77) 6.01 0.014*
 Yes 232 (38.60) 105 (45.26) 127 (54.74)   
Smoking
 No 410 (68.22) 148 (36.10) 262 (63.90) 4.88 0.027*
 Yes 191 (31.78) 87 (45.55) 104 (54.45)   
Alcohol use
 No 479 (79.70) 183 (38.20) 296 (61.80) 0.79 0.372
 Yes 122 (20.30) 52 (42.62) 70 (57.38)   
Having a medical condition
 No 257 (42.76) 79 (30.74) 178 (69.26) 13.18  < 0.001*
 Yes 344 (57.24) 156 (45.35) 188 (54.65)   
Experiencing stress 6 months prior
 No 418 (69.55) 101 (24.16) 317 (75.84) 128.65  < 0.001*
 Yes 183 (30.45) 134 (73.22) 49 (26.78)   
Reduction in ability to complete housework
 No 497 (82.70) 160 (32.19) 337 (67.81) 57.56  < 0.001*
 Yes 104 (17.30) 75 (72.12) 29 (27.88)   
Living independently with no need for interaction with people
 No 534 (88.85) 181 (33.90) 353 (66.10) 54.52  < 0.001*
 Yes 67 (11.15) 54 (80.60) 13 (19.40)   
Reduced work productivity within previous 6 months
 No 478 (79.50) 144 (30.13) 334 (69.87) 79.024  < 0.001*
 Yes 123 (20.50) 91 (73.98) 32 (26.02)   
Knowledge
 Low 405 (67.38) 136 (33.58) 269 (66.42) 17.24  < 0.001*
 Moderate 111 (18.47) 60 (54.05) 51 (45.95)   
 High 85 (11.14) 39 (45.88) 46 (54.12)   
Attitude
 Poor 394 (65.56) 151 (38.32) 243 (61.68) 0.89 0.638
 Neutral 129 (21.46) 55 (42.64) 74 (57.36)   
 Good 78 (12.97) 29 (31.18) 49 (62.82)   
  1. *Significance level at α = 0.05