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Table 2 Associations with suicidal behaviour (ideation, plan and/or attempt) in the past year

From: Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviour among adults in Malawi: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in 2017

Variable Male Female
COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Socio-demographics
 Age (years)
  18–29 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  30–49 3.88 (1.52, 9.91)** 2.90 (1.05 7.99)* 1.17 (0.76, 1.79)  
  50–69 2.56 (1.02, 6.40)* 2.41 (0.90, 6.46)* 1.14 (0.74, 1.75)  
 Education
  Secondary or more 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Standard 5–8 0.84 (0.31, 2.27)   1.62 (0.89, 2.95)  
  Standard 1–4 0.87 (0.34, 2.25)   1.31 (0.77, 2.24)  
  None 1.59 (0.22, 11.75)   0.69 (0.35, 1.37)  
 Marital status
  Never married 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Married/cohabiting 1.20 (0.34, 4.27)   1.69 (0.77, 3.70)  
  Separated/divorced/widowed 0.59 (0.14, 2.49)   2.00 (0.80, 5.02)  
 Employment status
  Nonpaid or unemployed 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Employed or student 1.23 (0.66, 2.27)   0.71 (0.44, 1.16)  
 Residence
  Rural 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Urban 0.84 (0.25, 2.86)   1.08 (0.63, 1.86)  
 Language of interview
  Tumbuka 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Chewa 0.88 (0.17, 4.57)   1.79 (0.62, 5.18)  
  English 1.31 (0.35, 4.85)   2.57 (0.89, 7.41)  
Psychosocial distress
 Alcohol family problem 5.09 (2.51, 10.31)*** 5.04 (2.18, 11.65)*** 3.11 (1.49, 6.49)** 2.75 (1.34, 5.61)**
 Family member attempted suicide 0.98 (0.29, 3.29) 2.96 (1.31, 6.66)**
 Family member died from suicide 0.50 (0.10, 2.44) 3.74 (1.32, 10.64)* 3.33 (1.10, 10.07)*
 Passive smoking 1.80 (0.75, 4.30) 1.38 (0.88, 2.18)
Physical factors and risk behaviours
 Systolic blood pressure (< 100 mmHg) 0.90 (0.42, 1.97) 2.96 (1.31, 6.68)** 0.96 (0.41, 2.18)
 Not taking anti-hypertension medication 0.37 (0.08, 1.71) 1.79 (1.01, 3.16)* 1.35 (0.79, 2.30)
 Body mass index
  Normal 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Underweight 0.68 (0.23, 2.01) 0.78 (0.29, 2.11) 1.94 (0.94, 4.01)  
  Overweight 1.18 (0.57, 2.46) 1.20 (0.52, 2.70) 0.73 (0.41, 1.28)  
  Obesity 0.22 (0.05, 0.87)* 0.15 (0.04, 0.67)* 0.68 (0.35, 1.31)  
 Diabetes status
  No 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Prediabetes 1.20 (0.24, 6.13)   2.46 (0.99, 6.13)  
  Diabetes 2.17 (0.43, 10.91)   1.26 (0.37, 4.28)  
Raised total cholesterol 1.96 (0.71, 5.36) 0.59 (0.35, 1.01)
Heart attack, angina or stroke 0.90 (0.30, 2.68) 2.36 (1.28, 4.33)** 2.07 (1.17, 3.66)*
Early smoking initiation (≤ 14 years) 8.60 (2.03, 36.45)** 6.20 (0.75, 51.16) 2.01 (0.21, 19.27)
Current smokeless tobacco use 0.17 (0.02, 1.58) 1.91 (0.89, 4.14)
Current alcohol use 1.50 (0.65, 3.42) 2.33 (1.05, 5.14)* 1.48 (0.77, 2.83)
Alcohol dependence 1.76 (0.53, 5.80) 0.78 (0.15, 3.99)
No active transport 0.31 (0.10, 0.98)* 0.36 (0.11, 1.15) 2.62 (1.58, 4.35)*** 2.43 (1.46, 4.06)**
Sedentary behaviour 2.64 (0.96, 7.25) 1.11 (0.57, 2.27)
  1. COR Crude Odds Ratio, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio
  2. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05