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Table 1 Sample and suicidal behaviour characteristics among 1486 men and 2702 women aged 18–69 years in Malawi

From: Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviour among adults in Malawi: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in 2017

Variable Total sample Suicidal behavioura (past 12 months)
Men Women
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Socio-demographics
All 4187 92 (6.0) 239 (9.6)
 Age (years)
  18–29 1371 (45.5) 16 (2.7) 85 (8.9)
  30–49 1890 (39.7) 55 (9.6) 106 (10.3)
  50–69 926 (14.7) 21 (6.6) 48 (10.0)
 Education
  Secondary or more 1057 (24.7) 29 (6.4) 44 (7.8)
  Standard 5–8 1227 (34.0) 34 (5.4) 77 (12.1)
  Standard 1–4 1318 (31.3) 27 (5.6) 89 (10.0)
  None 581 (10.0) 2 (9.8) 28 (5.5)
 Marital status
  Never married 418 (14.4) 11 (5.4) 11 (6.0)
  Married/cohabiting 2888 (73.0) 70 (6.4) 152 (9.7)
  Separated/divorced/widowed 866 (12.6) 11 (3.2) 76 (11.2)
 Employment status
  Nonpaid or unemployed 2329 (56.2) 29 (5.3) 167 (10.5)
  Employed or student 1756 (43.8) 62 (6.5) 70 (7.7)
 Residence
  Rural 3343 (89.1) 82 (6.1) 188 (9.5)
  Urban 844 (10.9) 10 (5.2) 51 (10.2)
 Language of interview
  Tumbuka 145 (4.3) 3 (6.2) 4 (5.4)
  Chewa 3535 (78.3) 62 (5.5) 193 (9.2)
  English 506 (17.5) 27 (8.0) 42 (12.7)
Psychosocial distress
 Alcohol family problem 294 (8.3) 27 (19.1) 27 (23.0)
 Family member attempted suicide 172 (5.4) 9 (6.0) 20 (22.8)
 Family member died from suicide 96 (2.5) 4 (3.2) 13 (27.6)
 Passive smoking 700 (20.7) 23 (8.7) 44 (12.2)
Physical factors and risk behaviours
 Systolic blood pressure (< 100 mmHg) 289 (6.4) 7 (14.8) 19 (8.9)
 Not taking anti-hypertension medication 301 (5.6) 2 (2.4) 34 (15.3)
 Body mass index
  Normal 2756 (73.0) 65 (5.9) 151 (10.2)
  Underweight 277 (8.5) 11 (4.1) 16 (18.1)
  Overweight 655 (13.5) 12 (6.9) 34 (7.6)
  Obesity 319 (5.0) 3 (1.4) 22 97.1)
 Diabetes status
  No 3590 (97.0) 77 (5.6) 203 (9.1)
  Prediabetes 103 (1.7) 2 (6.7) 9 (19.7)
  Diabetes 73 (1.3) 3 (11.5) 5 (11.2)
Raised total cholesterol 457 (8.2) 9 (10.0) 27 (6.0)
Heart attack, angina or stroke 312 (6.5) 7 (5.5) 38 (18.6)
Early smoking initiation (≤ 14 years) 26 (0.5) 4 (34.4) 1 (17.6)
Current smokeless tobacco use 78 (1.4) 1 (1.1) 9 (16.7)
Current alcohol use 558 (17.3) 34 (7.6) 11 (19.4)
Alcohol dependence 152 (5.0) 10 (9.5) 2 (7.7)
No active transport 365 (8.0) 5 (2.0) 44 (19.6)
Sedentary behaviour 233 (5.6) 10 (12.7) 16 (10.6)
  1. aSuicidal ideation and/or suicide plan and/or suicide attempt