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Table 6 Summary of mixed model analysis of caregivers’ child interaction change from baseline

From: Effectiveness of a technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, brief, multicomponent parents’ skills training intervention for children with developmental disorders in rural Pakistan: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Caregivers’ child interaction Domains of caregivers–chid interaction Visit Descriptive statistics Mixed model analysis
Intervention arm ETAU arm Difference in mean (95% CI) p-value
n M (SD) n M (SD)
Play based activity Child unengaged Baseline 43 2.40 (1.73) 27 3.22 (2.06)   
6 months post-intervention 61 2.43 (1.78) 47 2.77 (2.07) 0.77 (− 0.04, 1.58) 0.0614
Child object engaged Baseline 43 2.23 (1) 27 2.30 (1.14)   
6 months post-intervention 61 2.51 (1.39) 47 3.04 (1.67) − 0.04 (− 0.84, 0.76) 0.9103
Child’s joint engagement Baseline 43 3.67 (1.27) 27 3.07 (1.38)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.92 (1.56) 47 3.17 (1.51) 0.14 (− 0.76, 1.05) 0.7477
Child’s stereotyped, restricted, repetitive behaviours Baseline 43 1.53 (1.08) 27 2.74 (2.19)   
6 months post-intervention 61 1.89 (1.55) 47 2.51 (1.98) − 0.82 (− 2.02, 0.37) 0.1718
Child’s attention to caregiver Baseline 43 3.49 (1.30) 27 3.15 (1.41)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.80 (1.49) 47 3.64 (1.44) − 0.10 (− 0.94, 0.74) 0.8100
Child’s initiation of communication Baseline 43 2 (1.18) 27 1.93 (1.21)   
6 months post-intervention 61 2.25 (1.50) 47 1.62 (1.03) 0.21 (− 0.59, 1.01) 0.6021
Child’s expressive language level and use Baseline 43 2.30 (1.73) 27 2.19 (1.80)   
6 months post-intervention 61 2.69 (2.09) 47 2.87 (2.05) 0.05 (− 0.67, 0.76) 0.8923
Caregiver’s scaffolding Baseline 43 2.74 (1.51) 27 2.1 (1.31)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.11 (1.90) 47 2.40 (1.68) 0.34 (− 0.69, 1.36) 0.5117
Caregiver following in on child’s focus Baseline 43 2.74 (1.35) 27 2.26 (1.40)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.23 (2.09) 47 2.57 (1.64) − 0.04 (− 1.13, 1.06) 0.9480
Caregiver’s affect Baseline 43 2.93 (1.39) 27 2.48 (1.58)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.34 (1.97) 47 2.81 (1.56) 0.54 (− 0.24, 1.32) 0.1665
Fluency and connectedness Baseline 43 3.05 (1.40) 27 2.26 (1.23)   
6 months post-intervention 61 3.31 (1.58) 47 2.94 (1.51) 0.18 (− 0.68, 1.03) 0.6801
Shared routines and rituals Baseline 43 2.42 (1.33) 27 1.85 (1.20)   
6 months post-intervention 61 2.95 (1.83) 47 2.38 (1.61) − 0.01 (− 1.04, 1.01) 0.9827
Home routine Child unengaged Baseline 39 2.28 (2.06) 23 4.35 (2.48)   
6 months post-intervention 37 1.92 (1.72) 23 4 (2.32) − 0.21 (− 1.82, 1.39) 0.7821
Child object engaged Baseline 39 1.56 (1.14) 23 1.48 (0.79)   
6 months post-intervention 37 1.81 (1.22) 23 1.91 (1.08) 0.11 (− 0.88, 1.10) 0.8124
Child’s joint engagement Baseline 39 4.03 (2.08) 23 2.87 (1.46)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.86 (1.40) 23 3.17 (1.40) 0.31 (− 0.97, 1.59) 0.6211
Child’s stereotyped, restricted, repetitive behaviours Baseline 39 1.87 (1.38) 23 2.04 (1.58)   
6 months post-intervention 37 1.27 (0.65) 23 1.65 (1.23) − 0.52 (− 1.54, 0.50) 0.3000
Child’s attention to caregiver Baseline 39 3.69 (1.52) 23 3.52 (1.34)   
6 months post-intervention 37 4.27 (1.45) 23 3.09 (1.12) 0.67 (− 0.69, 2.03) 0.3135
Child’s initiation of communication Baseline 39 1.69 (0.83) 23 1.39 (0.58)   
6 months post-intervention 37 2 (1) 23 1.57 (0.90) − 0.24 (− 0.96, 0.48) 0.4887
Child’s expressive language level and use Baseline 39 2.26 (1.62) 23 2.93 (1.850)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.27 (1.92) 23 3.65 (1.82) − 0.19 (− 1.47, 1.09) 0.7621
Caregiver’s scaffolding Baseline 39 2.82 (1.97) 23 2.26 (1.54)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.14 (1.78) 23 1.83 (1.15) 1.20 (− 0.24, 2.64) 0.0981
Caregiver following in on child’s focus Baseline 39 2.77 (2.15) 23 2 (1.45)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.35 (1.83) 23 1.65 (1.19) 0.95 (− 0.59, 2.49) 0.2117
Caregiver’s affect Baseline 39 2.77 (1.68) 23 2.35 (1.34)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.30 (1.63) 23 1.87 (1.22) 1.04 (− 0.38, 2.46) 0.1404
Fluency and connectedness Baseline 39 2.87 (1.61) 23 2.30 (1.18)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.57 (1.28) 23 2.65 (1.40) 0.79 (− 0.24, 1.83) 0.1244
Shared routines and rituals Baseline 39 3.13 (1.88) 23 2.52 (1.50)   
6 months post-intervention 37 3.51 (1.50) 23 2.65 (1.72) 0.69 (− 0.49, 1.88) 0.2360