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Table 5 Summary of mixed model analysis of primary and secondary outcomes (changes from baseline): covariate adjusted analysis

From: Effectiveness of a technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, brief, multicomponent parents’ skills training intervention for children with developmental disorders in rural Pakistan: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Primary and secondary outcomes Descriptive statistics Mixed model analysis
Intervention arm ETAU arm Difference in mean (95% CI) p-value
n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD)
DD-CDAS—total disability score 221 − 7.34 (17.07) 239 − 4.50 (15.95) − 2.74 (− 6.63,1.14) 0.1662
DD-CDAS—understanding and communication 221 − 9.16 (23.72) 239 − 7.79 (21.48) − 2.68 (− 7.55, 2.19) 0.2797
DD-CDAS—getting around 221 − 5.63 (23.63) 239 − 2.91 (22.43) − 3.01 (− 7.05, 1.03) 0.1442
DD-CDAS—self-care 221 − 10.29 (21.96) 239 − 7.03 (21.50) − 1.50 (− 5.68, 2.69) 0.4826
DD-CDAS—getting along with people 221 − 7.04 (29.09) 239 − 2.91 (28.72) − 4.33 (− 9.90, 1.23) 0.1268
DD-CDAS—participation in society 221 − 3.83 (25.35) 239 − 0.45 (24.44) − 1.47 (− 7.10, 4.16) 0.6076
DD-CDAS—life activities 221 − 8.08 (24.30) 239 − 5.92 (23.01) − 2.06 (− 6.83,2.71) 0.3965
PedsQL total score 221 7.17 (21.85) 237 0.77 (20.96) 5.35 (0.62, 10.09) 0.0268
PedsQL—parent health related Quality of life 221 7.08 (24.72) 237 1.90 (22.97) 4.70 (− 0.19, 9.58) 0.0597
PedsQL—family functioning 221 1.54 (27.29) 237 − 4.23 (25.93) 3.90 (− 1.63, 9.43) 0.1663
PedsQL—physical functioning 221 12.50 (31.14) 237 5.13 (28.64) 6.21 (− 0.10, 12.52) 0.0538
PedsQL—Emotional functioning 221 10.29 (29.08) 237 3.50 (30.44) 6.43 (0.82, 12.05) 0.0248
PedsQL—social functioning 221 1.67 (33.69) 237 − 1.50 (33.50) 3.63 (− 2.71, 9.98) 0.2605
PedsQL—cognitive functioning 221 1.72 (33.63) 237 − 0.84 (30.43) 1.41 (− 3.84, 6.66) 0.5967
PedsQL—communication 221 4.07 (30.07) 237 − 5.50 (32.18) 5.92 (− 0.09, 11.93) 0.0536
PedsQL—worry 221 18.43 (31.15) 237 7.99 (31.91) 6.76 (0.31, 13.21) 0.0401
PedsQL—daily activities 221 3.81 (36.08) 237 − 0.74 (39.50) 3.29 (− 4.89, 11.47) 0.4298
PedsQL—family relationship 221 0.18 (29.73) 237 − 6.31 (28.22) 3.99 (− 1.77, 9.75) 0.1744
SDQ total socio emotional difficulties 221 − 0.50 (6.54) 238 0.44 (6.69) − 0.84 (− 2.25, 0.57) 0.2431
SDQ—emotional symptoms 221 − 0.17 (2.99) 238 0.11 (2.97) − 0.40 (− 1.00, 0.19) 0.1863
SDQ—conduct problems 221 0.15 (2.12) 238 0.36 (2.21) − 0.13 (− 0.56, 0.30) 0.5395
SDQ—hyperactivity symptoms 221 − 0.49 (2.74) 238 − 0.40 (2.61) − 0.14 (− 0.55, 0.26) 0.4853
SDQ—peer problems 221 0.00 (2.34) 238 0.37 (2.65) − 0.17 (− 0.68, 0.33) 0.4934
SDQ—pro social 221 0.31 (2.82) 238 0.27 (2.80) − 0.11 (− 0.59, 0.36) 0.6401
FES total scores 221 1.41 (13.03) 237 1.18 (11.69) 0.41 (− 1.74, 2.57) 0.7085
FES-service system 221 5.50 (14.56) 237 4.79 (13.48) 0.47 (− 2.71, 3.65) 0.7711
FES—community involvement 221 193.00 (86.34) 237 180.97 (85.25) 13.09 (− 4.07, 30.25) 0.1346
FES—attitude 221 1.87 (10.22) 237 1.50 (9.81) 0.48 (− 1.04, 2.01) 0.5351
FES—knowledge 221 4.22 (11.47) 237 3.19 (11.21) 0.76 (− 1.69, 3.21) 0.5426
FES—behaviour 221 2.23 (11.14) 237 1.95 (10.32) 0.39 (− 1.78, 2.55) 0.7258
ISE 221 − 0.33 (2.41) 237 − 0.04 (2.56) − 0.20 (− 0.69, 0.29) 0.4169
  1. Adjusted for age, gender, and baseline DD-CDAS and DD-CGAS score
  2. ETAU enhanced treatment-as-usual, DD-CDAS Developmental Disorders-Children Disability Assessment Schedule, PedsQL Paediatric Quality of Life Inventor—family impact module, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, FES Family Assessment Schedule, ISE Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences