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Table 4 Summary of mixed model analysis of primary and secondary outcomes (N = 540)

From: Effectiveness of a technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, brief, multicomponent parents’ skills training intervention for children with developmental disorders in rural Pakistan: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Measurements Visit Descriptive statistics Mixed model analysis
Intervention arm ETAU arm Difference in mean (95% CI) p-value
n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD)
DD-CDAS total disability score Baseline 270 56.13 (22.56) 270 53.65 (23.08)   
6 months post-intervention 221 47.65 (26.94) 239 48.72 (26.37) − 2.63 (− 6.50, 1.24) 0.1820
DD-CDAS—understanding and communication Baseline 270 59.15 (25.07) 270 58.81 (24.16)   
6 months post-intervention 221 49.21 (26.97) 239 51.08 (27.87) − 1.28 (− 6.53, 3.96) 0.6304
DD-CDAS—getting around Baseline 270 45.17 (42.32) 270 43.56 (40.99)   
6 months post-intervention 221 37.40 (43.10) 239 39.64 (41.14) − 2.66 (− 6.75, 1.44) 0.2024
DD-CDAS—self-care Baseline 270 65.97 (28.24)   61.02 (29.28)   
6 months post-intervention 221 54.58 (33.46) 239 53.09 (32.77) − 2.66 (− 6.74, 1.43) 0.2020
DD-CDAS—getting along with people Baseline 270 51.52 (28.85) 270 49.11 (28.12)   
6 months post-intervention 221 42.85 (30.23) 239 46.07 (30.49) − 3.60 (− 9.63, 2.42) 0.2404
DD-CDAS—participation in society Baseline 270 42.74 (21.84) 270 39.27 (23.30)   
6 months post-intervention 221 37.99 (24.18) 239 38.06 (22.91) − 1.70 (− 7.82, 4.42) 0.5862
DD-CDAS—life activities Baseline 270 72.21 (24.76) 270 70.11 (23.99)   
6 months post-intervention 221 63.90 (31.47) 239 64.40 (30.16) − 1.83 (− 6.33, 2.67) 0.4245
PedsQL total score Baseline 270 58.56 (17.37) 270 60.66 (18.69)   
6 months post-intervention 221 65.56 (23.25) 237 62.17 (22.63) 5.28 (0.44,10.11) 0.0325
PedsQL—parental health related quality of life Baseline 270 57.09 (20.37) 270 57.90 (22.14)   
6 months post-intervention 221 63.92 (24.70) 237 60.58 (24.75) 4.43 (− 0.53, 9.39) 0.0797
PedsQL—family functioning Baseline 270 71.63 (22.64) 270 74.16 (20.26)   
6 months post-intervention 221 72.68 (24.32) 237 70.27 (25.04) 3.88 (− 1.72, 9.48) 0.1738
PedsQL—physical functioning Baseline 270 48.61 (23.46) 270 51.74 (25.14)   
6 months post-intervention 221 61.39 (28.93) 237 57.17 (29.46) 5.73 (− 0.53, 12.00) 0.0728
PedsQL—emotional functioning Baseline 270 51.91 (26.79) 270 51.97 (27.17)   
6 months post-intervention 221 61.76 (26.12) 237 56.08 (28.03) 6.23 (0.52, 11.94) 0.0325
PedsQL—social functioning Baseline 270 65.93 (26.55) 270 65.46 (26.86)   
6 months post-intervention 221 67.79 (30.62) 237 64.87 (30.18) 3.10 (− 3.43, 9.63) 0.3515
PedsQL—cognitive functioning Baseline 270 65.37 (27.28) 270 65.13 (27.64)   
6 months post-intervention 221 66.04 (29.25) 237 65.74 (29.88) 1.24 (− 4.15, 6.63) 0.6509
PedsQ—communication total Baseline 270 66.44 (24.12) 270 71.45 (23.48)   
6 months post-intervention 221 70.72 (28.37) 237 66.75 (28.20) 5.85 (− 0.25, 11.95) 0.0602
PedsQL—worry Baseline 270 38.71 (22.16) 270 43.60 (22.33)   
6 months post-intervention 221 57.58 (28.66) 237 52.85 (30.09) 6.66 (0.00,13.33) 0.0499
PedsQL—daily activities Baseline 270 54.81 (31.15) 270 55.80 (30.95)   
6 months post-intervention 221 57.96 (33.65) 237 56.01 (35.92) 2.95 (− 5.61, 11.52) 0.4984
PedsQL—family relationship Baseline 270 81.72 (23.57) 270 85.17 (20.92)   
6 months post-intervention 221 81.52 (24.35) 237 78.84 (26.59) 4.04 (− 1.65, 9.73) 0.1632
SDQ total socio emotional difficulties Baseline 270 16.50 (5.56) 270 16.50 (6.04)   
6 months post-intervention 221 16.24 (6.13) 238 16.98 (6.38) − 0.79 (− 2.24, 0.66) 0.2840
SDQ—emotional symptoms Baseline 270 3.73 (2.44) 270 3.94 (2.48)   
6 months post-intervention 221 3.64 (2.41) 238 4.04 (2.53) − 0.36 (− 0.97, 0.25) 0.2460
SDQ—conduct problems Baseline 270 3.28 (1.99) 270 3.23 (2.11)   
6 months post-intervention 221 3.49 (1.86) 238 3.61 (1.86) − 0.13 (− 0.57, 0.30) 0.5434
SDQ—hyperactivity symptoms Baseline 270 5.22 (2.29) 270 5.29 (2.25)   
6 months post-intervention   4.77 (2.42)   4.90 (2.36) − 0.12 (− 0.54, 0.31) 0.5965
SDQ—peer problems Baseline   4.27 (2.02)   4.04 (2.21)   
6 months post-intervention 221 4.33 (2.03) 238 4.43 (2.29) − 0.19 (− 0.69, 0.31) 0.4550
SDQ—pro social Baseline 270 4.49 (2.94) 270 4.96 (3.26)   
6 months post-intervention 221 4.86 (3.09) 238 5.20 (3.06) − 0.12 (− 0.60, 0.37) 0.6395
FES total score Baseline 270 40.77 (11.07) 270 39.74 (10.16)   
6 months post-intervention 221 41.41 (9.78) 237 40.89 (9.52) 0.47 (− 1.70, 2.64) 0.6701
FES—service system Baseline 270 34.60 (12.37) 270 34.24 (10.97)   
6 months post-intervention 221 39.24 (11.59) 237 38.72 (11.79) 0.55 (− 2.64, 3.75) 0.7344
FES—community involvement Baseline 270 19.30 (7.48) 270 18.87 (7.08)   
6 months post-intervention 221 20.28 (8.21) 237 19.48 (7.09) 1.117 (− 2.20, 0.607) 0.26
FES—attitude Baseline 270 31.70 (9.31) 270 30.86 (8.60)   
6 months post-intervention 221 32.84 (8.73) 237 32.23 (8.21) 0.53 (− 0.99, 2.05) 0.4936
FES—knowledge Baseline 270 32.61 (10.24) 270 32.32 (9.15)   
6 months post-intervention 221 36.14 (10.73) 237 35.45 (9.91) 0.81 (− 1.63, 3.24) 0.5160
FES—behaviours Baseline 270 30.36 (9.76) 270 29.66 (8.75)   
6 months post-intervention 221 31.95 (8.78) 237 31.42 (8.45) 0.46 (− 1.72, 2.65) 0.6768
ISE Baseline 270 2.46 (2.03) 270 2.51 (2.27)   
6 months post-intervention 221 2.23 (2.05) 237 2.42 (2.23) − 0.21 (− 0.70, 0.28) 0.3967
  1. ETAU enhanced treatment-as-usual, DD-CDAS Developmental Disorders-Children Disability Assessment Schedule, PedsQL Paediatric Quality of Life Inventor—family impact module, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, FES Family Assessment Schedule, ISE Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences