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Table 3 Demographic characteristics (N = 540)

From: Effectiveness of a technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, brief, multicomponent parents’ skills training intervention for children with developmental disorders in rural Pakistan: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Total (N = 540) Intervention arm (n = 270) ETAU arm (n = 270)
Age of child in years 6.72 (2.76) 6.59 (2.66) 6.85 (2.86)
Age in categories
 2–8 years 378 (70.0%) 195 (72.2%) 183(67.8%)
 9–12 years 162 (30.0%) 75 (27.8%) 87 (32.2%)
Sex of child
 Male 320 (59.3%) 159 (58.9%) 161 (59.6%)
 Female 220 (40.7%) 111 (41.1%) 109 (40.4%)
Caregivers’ relationship with child
 Mother 520 (96.3%) 259 (95.9%) 261 (96.7%)
 Sister 4 (0.7%) 2 (0.7%) 2 (0.7%)
 Paternal aunt 6 (1.1%) 4 (1.5%) 2 (0.7%)
 Maternal aunt 3 (0.6%) 1 (0.4%) 2 (0.7%)
Grandmother 7 (1.3%) 4 (1.5%) 3 (1.1%)
Type of developmental difficulties
 Cognitive difficulties 239 (44.3%) 116 (43.0%) 123 (45.6%)
 Motor difficulties 32 (5.9%) 15 (5.6%) 17 (6.3%)
 Cognitive difficulties with motor difficulties 216 (40.0%) 108 (40.0%) 108 (40.0%)
 Communication difficulties 14 (2.6%) 8 (3.0%) 6 (2.2%)
 Down syndrome 39 (7.2%) 23 (8.5%) 16 (5.9%)
Mother’s education
 No schooling 177 (32.8%) 84 (31.1%) 93 (34.4%)
 Primary (6 years) 126 (23.3%) 56 (20.7%) 70 (25.9%)
 Middle (8 years) 70 (13.0%) 40 (14.8%) 30 (11.1%)
 Matric (10 years) 107 (19.8%) 52 (19.3%) 55 (20.4%)
 Intermediate (12 years) 28 (5.2%) 16 (5.9%) 12 (4.4%)
 College and university (16 years) 32 (5.9%) 22 (8.1%) 10 (3.7%)
Father’s education
 No schooling 76 (14.1%) 42 (15.6%) 34 (12.6%)
 Primary (6 years) 71 (13.1%) 28 (10.4%) 43 (15.9%)
 Middle (8 years) 115 (21.3%) 60 (22.2%) 55 (20.4%)
 Matric (10 years) 198 (36.7%) 99 (36.7%) 99 (36.7%)
 Intermediate (12 years) 43 (8.0%) 25 (9.3%) 18 (6.7%)
 College and university (16 years) 27 (5%) 13 (4.8) 14 (5.1)
 Not applicable 10 (1.9%) 3 (1.1%) 7 (2.6%)
Total monthly income 540 270 270
Mean (SD)a 19,236.65 (17,617.78) 19,543.58 (19,194.36) 18,929.71 (15,915.82)
  1. aAmount in Pakistani rupees