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Table 1 Outline of intervention sessions and content

From: Effectiveness of a technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, brief, multicomponent parents’ skills training intervention for children with developmental disorders in rural Pakistan: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Sessions Content Intervention density
Session 1: Getting to know developmental disorders Introducing program and engaging caregivers and family
Psycho-educating caregivers about child development and developmental delays and disorders
Strategies for caregivers to engage children and promote child development
Highlighting the role of family, school and community in helping and supporting children with special needs
A 90 min session in week-1
Session 2: Causes and prevention of developmental disorders Psychoeducation about causes and prevention of developmental disorders/delays before, during and after child birth and in early childhood A 90 min session in week-2
Session 3: Learning through play and learning to play Strategies to manage caregiver’s stress
Play based activities to promote caregiver-child interaction and child’s learning
A 90 min session in week-3
Session 4: Understanding and promoting communication Psycho-educating caregivers about understanding child’s communication (by observing child’s words, gesture and challenging behaviour)
Skills based strategies for caregiver to promote child’s communication
Respond to child’s every communication by showing a gesture and talking at a level that he/she can understand
Look and listen to notice when a child wants something and wait for a few seconds to see if he/she will ask for
Help the child to know how to ask for something with a gesture and words
A 90 min session in week-4
Session 5: Managing challenging behaviours Skills based strategies for caregivers to manage child’s challenging behaviours
Managing child’s challenging behaviour by looking and listening for signals before the challenging behaviour
Responding to child’s skills and appropriate behaviour with praise and encouragement
Responding to challenging behaviour by teaching the child words and gestures to ask
Use of picture schedules to help the child understand routines and stay regulated
A 90 min session in week-5
Session 6: Managing everyday life situations Psycho-educating caregivers that children can learn new skills for everyday life by practicing with caregiver’s help and assistance
Skills based strategy (i.e. break and teach) and four levels of help for caregivers to teach child every day skills
A 90 min session in week-6
Session 7: Managing caregiver’s stress through problem solving and group support Strategies to manage caregiver’s stress
Stress management through slow breathing
Problem solving
Ensuring family support
Mobilizing group support to manage practical problems
A 90 min session in week-7
Session 8: Strategies to manage comorbid conditions in children with developmental disorders/delays Psychoeducation and skill based strategies to manage co-morbid conditions including epilepsy, adolescent depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Promoting community based rehabilitation, addressing stigma and promoting human rights according to the WHO mhGAP-IG guidelines
A 90 min session in week-8
Session 9: Strategies to manage motor difficulties in children with developmental disorders/delays Practical guidance on managing motor difficulties in children with developmental disorders A 90 min session in week-9