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Table 4 Multivariable Poisson regression model of the association between the number of involuntary hospitalizations and sociodemographic, clinical, and contextual characteristics

From: Factors associated with involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in Portugal

  Exp (\(\widehat{\upbeta }\)) 95%CI
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender
 Women Ref  
 Men 1.31 1.06–1.62 *
Age
 15–29 Ref  
 30–49 1.10 0.86–1.42
 50–64 0.97 0.69–1.38
 ≥ 65 0.89 0.52–1.49
Marital status
 Single Ref  
 Married/cohabitating 0.74 0.56–0.99 *
 Divorced/separated/widowed 0.94 0.70–1.24
Education
 None or primary education Ref  
 Basic education 1.30 0.98–1.73
 Secondary education 1.45 1.05–2.01 *
 Higher education 1.89 1.38–2.60 ***
Employment status
 Workers or students Ref  
 Unemployed 1.08 0.84–1.39
 Retired or others 1.11 0.86–1.45
Clinical characteristics
Psychiatric diagnosis
 Mood and anxiety disorders Ref  
 Dementia 0.98 0.46–1.92
 Substance use disorders 0.94 0.60–1.43
 Psychosis 2.02 1.59–2.59 ***
 Other mental disorders 0.84 0.55–1.26
Suicide attempt
 No Ref  
 Yes 0.26 0.15–0.42 ***
Contextual characteristics
Year
 2002 Ref  
 2007 1.61 1.21- 2.16 **
 2012 1.73 1.31–2.32 ***
Psychiatric service
 Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental EPE Ref  
 Hospital de Magalhães Lemos EPE 0.65 0.49–0.86 **
 Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa 0.67 0.49–0.90 **
 Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca EPE 0.79 0.54–1.14
 Unidade Local de Saúde do Baixo Alentejo EPE 0.67 0.46–0.96 *
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001