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Table 4 Multiple linear regression of the effects (and their 95% confidence intervals) of age, years in Australia, education, language spoken at home, gender, group language, home practice, group attendance and home practice x group attendance interactions on mental health outcomes (post–pre differences)

From: Effectiveness of a Community-based Group Mindfulness Program tailored for Arabic and Bangla-speaking Migrants

Covariates Difference in K10 score Difference in K10 Q11 (Days of inability to work) Difference in K10 Q12 (Days of cutting down work apart from days in Q11) Difference in DASS depression Difference in DASS anxiety Difference in DASS
stress
Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI)
Age group
 (< 26 years)       
 26–35 − 1.35 (− 5.44, 2.75) − 1.38 (− 3.90, 1.13) − 2.45 (− 6.90, 1.99) − 0.41 (− 2.86, 2.03) − 0.94 (− 3.49, 1.61) − 0.83 (− 3.29, 1.64)
 36–45 − 2.42 (− 7.07, 2.23) − 1.99 (− 4.74, 0.76) − 2.79 (− 7.38, 1.81) − 0.64 (− 3.31, 2.03) − 2.40 (− 5.06, 0.26) − 1.28 (− 3.99, 1.44)
 46–55 − 2.33 (− 7.11, 2.45) − 2.25 (− 4.60, 0.46) − 3.76 (− 8.97, 1.46) − 1.68 (− 4.44, 1.09) − 2.85c (− 5.96, 0.27) − 2.24 (− 5.55, 1.06)
 56–65 − 6.23c (− 10.98, − 1.49) − 3.00c (− 5.68, − 0.32) − 1.72 (− 6.30, 2.86) − 1.29 (− 3.97, 1.39) − 2.64c (− 5.69, 0.41) − 2.94c (− 5.72, − 0.16)
Years in Australia
 (< 4)       
 4–6 − 1.23 (− 5.79, 3.34) − 0.84 (− 3.39, 1.71) − 0.44 (− 4.85, 3.96) 0.63 (− 1.99, 3.26) − 1.00 (− 3.54, 1.55) − 0.21 (− 2.87, 2.45)
 7–10 − 0.69 (− 5.10, 3.71) − 0.23 (− 2.49, 2.03) − 0.32 (− 4.34, 3.70) − 0.11 (− 2.48, 2.25) − 0.99 (− 3.31, 1.33) 0.49 (− 1.96, 2.93)
 >  = 11 1.86 (− 1.54, 5.26) 0.19 (− 1.55, 1.93) − 1.31 (− 4.50,1.87) 1.21 (− 0.62, 3.04) 1.06 (− 0.75, 2.88) 1.19 (− 0.70, 3.07)
Education
 (High school)       
 University − 1.27 (− 3.81, 1.27) 0.09 (− 1.40, 1.58) − 0.18 (− 2.66, 0.31) − 0.37 (− 1.78, 1.04) − 0.91 (− 2.23, 0.64) − 0.05 (− 1.50, 1.41)
Speaks English at home
 (No)       
 Yes − 2.35 (− 4.97, 0.27) 0.75 (− 0.72, 2.21) − 0.66 (− 3.29, 1.97) − 0.64 (− 2.24, 0.96) 0.50 (− 1.00, 2.00) 0.13 (− 1.39, 1.66)
Weeks of home practice
 (< 2)       
 2 − 2.62 (− 10.06, 4.83) − 0.39 (− 4.74, 3.78) 5.07 (− 2.52, 12.65) 0.79 (− 3.06, 4.64) − 0.28 (− 4.17, 3.61) −  0.43 (− 4.29, 3.43)
 3 − 1.06 (− 9.92, 7.80) 0.33 (− 4.12, 4.77) 7.08 (− 1.90, 16.07) − 1.81 (− 7.29, 3.66) − 1.13 (− 6.33, 4.07) − 0.48 (− 5.49, 4.53)
 4 3 .08 (− 9.75, 15.92) − 2.81 (− 10.06, 4.43) 9.77 (− 3.25, 22.78) 1.67 (− 5.45, 8.79) 1.55 (− 5.68, 8.78) 0.24 (− 7.10, 7.58)
Group sessions attended
 (< 4)       
 4 − 2.20 (− 9.79, 5.38) − 1.64 (− 5.79, 2.52) 0.76 (− 9.55, 8.08) − 1.30 (− 5.55, 2.95) − 0.82 (− 5.10, 3.46) − 1.01 (− 5.27, 3.25)
 5 − 1.33 (− 10.06, 7.40) − 2.05 (− 6.47, 2.37) − 0.73 (− 9.55, 8.08) − 2.66 (− 7.27, 1.94) 1.15 (− 3.62, 5.92) 0.17 (− 4.55, 4.89)
Home practice & Group sessions interaction
 (< 2 weeks* < 4 sessions)       
 2 wks*4 sessions 1.79 (− 8.06, 11.64) − 0.25 (− 5.92, 5.43) − 5.35 (− 15.69, 4.99) − 0.43 (− 6.01, 5.14) 1.76 (− 3.82, 7.33) 1.01 (− 4.62, 6.65)
 2 wks*5 sessions − 0.04 (− 10.31, 10.22) 2.16 (− 3.62, 7.94) − 0.42 (− 11.43, 10.60) 0.26 (− 5.54, 6.05) − 0.91 (− 6.66, 4.83) − 0.25 (− 6.12, 5.62)
 3 wks*4 sessions 0.44 (− 9.93, 10.80) − 0.07 (− 5.71, 5.58) − 6.30 (− 16.81, 4.21) 1.42 (− 5.08, 7.92) 1.75 (− 4.54, 8.03) 0.56 (− 5.68, 6.79)
 3 wks*5 sessions 0.01 (− 11.00, 11.02) 0.34 (− 5.60, 6.28) − 4.32 (− 15.82, 7.17) 1.39 (− 5.13, 7.91) − 0.52 (− 6.87, 5.83) − 1.50 (− 7.98, 4.98)
 4 wks*4 sessions − 3.74 (− 18.40, 10.91) 3.92 (− 4.38, 12.21) − 6.82 (− 21.87, 8.22) − 2.78 (− 11.06, 5.51) − 1.13 (− 9.36, 7.09) − 0.50 (− 8.95, 7.94)
 4 wks*5 sessions − 4.57 (− 19.45, 10.30) 2.40 (− 5.84, 10.63) − 7.15 (− 22.29, 7.99) − 0.95 (− 9.26, 7.35) − 2.52 (− 10.88, 5.84) − 1.76 (− 10.26, 6.74)
Gender
 (Male)       
 Female − 0.77 (− 4.72, 3.17) 0.37 (− 1.73, 2.47) − 1.19 (− 5.36, 2.97) − 0.68 (− 3.10, 1.74) − 0.23 (− 2.42, 1.96) − 0.88 (− 3.25, 1.49)
Group language
 (Arabic)       
 Bangla 1.18 (− 1.44, 3.80) 0.43 (− 1.11, 1.98) 1.96 (− 0.74, 4.65) 1.70c (0.14, 3.26) 1.85c (0.37, 3.33) 2.22b (0.69, 3.75)
  1. The reference category of a variable is in parentheses; a indicates p < 0.001, b indicates p < 0.01, c indicates p < 0.05