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Table 4 Summary results from post hoc mixed-model analysis of primary and secondary outcomes, with baseline measurement (i.e. age, gender, HADS) included as covariate

From: Effect of adding a psychological intervention to routine care of common mental disorders in a specialized mental healthcare facility in Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial

Primary and secondary outcomes Visit Difference in least squares mean for intervention vs treatment as usual (95% CI) P value
HADS Anxiety Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 2.67 (− 4.32 to − 1.03) 0.002
Follow-up − 1.84 (− 3.56 to − 0.13) 0.04
HADS Depression Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 1.98 (− 3.41 to − 0.55) 0.007
Follow-up − 1.43 (− 2.92 to 0.07) 0.06
HADS Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 4.65 (− 7.27 to − 2.03) 0.0006
Follow-up − 3.20 (− 5.92 to − 0.48) 0.02
WHO DAS Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 3.81 (− 6.59 to − 1.04) 0.008
Follow-up − 4.44 (− 7.34 to − 1.55) 0.003
PCL Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 3.30 (− 8.71 to 2.12) 0.23
Follow-up − 5.17 (− 11.08 to − 0.33) 0.04
PHQ Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 2.51 (− 4.96 to − 0.06) 0.04
Follow-up − 3.04 (− 5.32 to − 0.76) 0.01
Days of these difficulties present Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 4.33 (− 7.90 to − 0.77) 0.02
Follow-up − 2.84 (− 6.47 to 0.79) 0.12
Days of total disability Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 2.51 (− 5.18 to 0.15) 0.06
Follow-up − 1.69 (− 4.41 to 1.02) 0.22
Days of activity reduce Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 3.15 (− 6.41 to 0.10) 0.06
Follow-up − 1.95 (− 5.27 to 1.37) 0.25
Perceived social support Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment 4.45 (− 1.05 to 9.95) 0.11
Follow-up 2.52 (− 3.22 to 8.27) 0.39
PSYCHLOPS Pre-treatment   
Post-treatment − 2.58 (− 4.39 to − 0.77) 0.006
Follow-up − 1.66 (− 3.54 to 0.23) 0.08
  1. HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, WHODAS WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, PCL Post-traumatic stress disorder checklist, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, PSYCHLOPS Psychological Outcome Profile
  2. Post-treatment = 7-week after baseline; Follow-up = 20 weeks after baseline