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Table 3 Summary statistics and results from mixed-model analysis of primary and secondary outcomes

From: Effect of adding a psychological intervention to routine care of common mental disorders in a specialized mental healthcare facility in Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial

Primary and secondary outcomes Visit PM + (N = 96) TAU (N = 96) Difference in least squares mean (95% CI) P-value
N M (SD) N M (SD)
Descriptive statistics n, mean (SD)
 HADS Anxiety Pre-treatment 95 13.44 (3.67) 96 12.90 (4.02)   
Post-treatment 73 8.56 (5.00) 73 11.08 (4.90) − 2.41 (− 4.04 to − 0.77) 0.004
Follow-up 62 8.17 (5.12) 67 10.12 (4.79) − 1.69 (− 3.41 to 0.02) 0.05
 HADS Depression Pre-treatment 95 12.18 (3.99) 96 10.80 (3.72)   
Post-treatment 73 8.16 (4.17) 73 9.92 (4.37) − 1.85 (− 3.29 to − 0.41) 0.01
Follow-up 62 8.04 (4.89) 67 9.67 (3.94) − 1.30 (− 2.81 to 0.21) 0.09
 HADS Pre-treatment 95 25.62 (6.61) 96 23.70 (6.07)   
Post-treatment 73 16.72 (8.44) 73 21.00 (7.88) − 4.35 (− 6.99 to − 1.71) 0.002
Follow-up 62 16.23 (8.81) 67 19.79 (7.77) − 3.10 (− 5.76 to − 0.26) 0.03
 WHODAS Pre-treatment 96 33.41 (7.17) 96 32.77 (7.77)   
Post-treatment 74 25.20 (8.97) 74 28.41 (8.19) − 3.16 (− 6.38 to − 0.85) 0.01
Follow-up 62 22.94 (9.73) 67 27.37 (8.36) − 4.35 (− 7.24 to − 1.45) 0.004
 PCL Pre-treatment 96 49.78 (13.99) 96 49.86 (13.66)   
Post-treatment 61 39.90 (15.89) 63 42.35 (15.73) − 2.69 (− 8.08 to 2.70) 0.32
Follow-up 61 32.93 (14.21) 64 39.08 (15.75) − 5.39 (− 10.76 to − 0.02) 0.05
 PHQ Pre-treatment 96 15.09 (5.17) 96 15.04 (4.99)   
Post-treatment 53 9.79 (6.71) 54 11.76 (6.51) − 2.18 (− 4.65 to 0.29) 0.08
Follow-up 61 7.16 (6.23) 63 10.29 (6.79) − 2.91 (− 5.22 to − 0.60) 0.01
 Days of these difficulties present Pre-treatment 92 20.9 3 (9.61) 93 20.89 (8.51)   
Post-treatment 66 13.98 (10.45) 67 18.10 (10.21) − 3.93 (− 7.44 to − 0.43) 0.03
Follow-up 60 13.88 (11.17) 64 16.67 (9.59) − 2.80 (− 6.40 to 0.80) 0.13
 Days of total disability Pre-treatment 91 11.22 (9.78) 92 10.82 (9.47)   
Post-treatment 65 5.03 (7.15) 67 7.82 (9.03) − 2.62 (− 5.29 to 0.06) 0.06
Follow-up 60 5.82 (7.34) 64 8.00 (7.82) − 1.71 (− 4.46 to 1.03) 0.22
 Days of activity reduce Pre-treatment 90 14.14 (10.26) 92 12.97 (10.19)   
Post-treatment 65 8.22 (8.40) 67 11.19 (9.58) − 2.72 (− 5.92 to 0.49) 0.10
Follow-up 60 8.35 (9.57) 64 10.20 (9.69) − 1.92 (− 5.22 to 1.38)) 0.25
 Perceived social support Pre-treatment 96 51.92 (16.60) 96 52.74 (17.11)   
Post-treatment 73 55.53 (17.70) 74 51.43 (18.03) 3.85 (− 4.55 to 9.25) 0.16
Follow-up 61 56.61 (17.35) 65 52.57 (14.70) 2.24 (− 3.42 to 7.90) 0.43
 PSYCHLOPS Pre-treatment 96 15.39 (3.65) 95 14.94 (3.77)   
Post-treatment 67 9.31 (5.68) 69 11.55 (5.01) − 2.40 (− 4.19 to − 0.60) 0.009
Follow-up 61 8.98 (5.93) 61 10.62 (4.99) − 1.63 (− 3.51 to 0.24) 0.09
  1. TAU Treatment as usual, PM + Problem Management Plus, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (subscale score range: 0–21; higher scores indicate elevated anxiety or depression, respectively), WHODAS WHO Disability Adjustment Scale (total score range: 0–48; higher scores indicate more severe impairment), PCL Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (total score range: 17–85; higher scores indicate more severe PTSD severity), PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire (total score range: 0–27; higher scores indicate more severe depression, PSYCHLOPS Psychological Outcome Profiles (total score range: 0–20; higher scores indicate poorer outcome)
  2. Post-treatment = 7-week after baseline; Follow-up = 20 weeks after baseline