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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Barriers and facilitators for scaling up mental health and psychosocial support interventions in low- and middle-income countries for populations affected by humanitarian crises: a systematic review

First author, year Country (classificationa)
Crisis population
Resource team User organisation Innovation/Service being scaled up Adult/child/both Mental health outcomes targeted
Baingana, 2011 Uganda (L)
Natural Disaster
IDP
NGO: TPO Uganda NGO, Community and Government health services Recognition, assessment and management
Outreach services
Community response
Both MHPSS needs; CMDs
Boothby, 2011 Indonesia (LM)
Natural Disaster
Local population
MoH, Indonesia Universityb, WHO, ADB, DfID AusAID, USAID JSI, Indonesian Department of Health Case management
Community outreach
Home visitation
Both Axis I disorders (DSM-IV)
Budosan, 2007 Sri Lanka (LM)
Natural Disaster
Local and IDP
INGO: IMC, WHO IMC, Divisional Medical Officers of Health Community detection
‘Established mental health interventions’
Problem solving
Treatment for medically unexplained somatic pain
Not stated Emotional and psychological health
Budosan, 2011 1: Sri Lanka (LM)
Natural Disaster
Local population
2: Pakistan (L)
Natural Disaster
Local population
3: Jordan (LM)
Conflict
Refugees
INGO: IMC IMC, MoH, WHO, district staff Community detection
‘Established mental health interventions’
Problem solving strategies
Treatment for medically unexplained somatic pain
Not stated Overall mental health
Budosan, 2011 Haiti (L)
Natural Disaster
Local and IDP
NGO: Cordaid Local NGOs, Ministry of Public Health and Population, local health departments MHPSS interventions; problem solving skills, anxiety management, anger management, family and peer support, psychological support, stress management and medication Not statedc Priority MNS conditions
General mental health and wellbeing
Budosan, 2016 Philippines (LM)
Natural Disaster
Local population
WHO Government, INGO: IMC Psychosocial interventions
MedicationAcute psychiatric units
Psychoeducation
Detection
Not stated CMDs and stress related conditions
Chandrasiri, 2015 Sri Lanka (LM)
Natural Disaster
Local population
WHO Government Staff Identification of CMDs
Crisis Intervention
Community and clinic outreach
Advocacy and family support
Problem solving
School programmes
Not stated General mental health
Echeverri, 2018 Seven countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cameroon (LM), Chad (L), Ethiopia (L), DRC (L), Kenya (LM), Uganda (L), Tanzania (L)
Conflict implied
Refugees
UNHCR, WHO War Trauma Foundation, UNHCR, partner organisations Identification and care, including medication and psychosocial interventions Not stated MNS conditions
Hijazi, 2011 Lebanon (UM)
Conflict
Refugees and Local population
INGO: IMC IMC, MoH, local partners, IDRAACd, local NGO: AMEL Association Medication
Other interventions for behavioural disorders, maternal depression, monitoring child development and ADHD
Psychosocial interventions including family support
Both Range of disorders: local priorities including CMDs, severe disorders, medically unexplained symptoms, sleep, maternal mental health, and child and adolescent mental health
Humayun, 2017 Pakistan (LM)
Conflict
IDPs
WHO, IMC Pakistan Army Field Hospital, IMC, District Health Office Psychosocial interventions including:
Psychoeducation
Behavioural activation
Stress management
Problem solving Principles of behavioural therapy
Counselling
Both CMDs
Priorities identified include depression, adjustment disorders, drug dependence, intellectual disabilities and behavioural disorders
Jordans, 2016 Nepal (L)
Conflict
Local population
Academic Institutions, NGO: TPO NGO: TPO Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population Assessment and management
Psychoeducation, emotional support
Pharmacological treatment
Brief, focussed, manualised problem-oriented psychosocial support (Behavioural Activation, Motivational Interviewing, CBT)
Community screening and monitoring
Not statede Local priority mental health disorders, in particular, psychoses, depression, alcohol use disorders, epilepsy
Sadiq, 2011 Iraq (LM)
Conflict
Local population
MoH, INGO: IMC MoH Assessment, diagnosis and management Not stated Mental health, common neurological disorders, psychiatric disorders
Shackman, 2013 Sierra Leone (L)
Conflict
Local population
INGO: CAFOD Five local NGOs, University of Makeni Counselling
Family Support
Medication
‘Intervention’
Awareness and community sensitisation
Livelihood support
Not stated General mental health
Siriwardhana, 2016 Sri Lanka (LM)
Conflict
Local population and IDPs
WHO, NIMH MoH, Provincial health authorities and medical association Identification and treatment Not stated CMDs: focus on depression, stress related disorders, medically unexplained symptoms, alcohol/drug use disorders and suicide
  1. TPO Transcultural Psychosocial Organisation; ADB Asian Development Bank; DfID UK Department for International Development; AusAID Australian Government Overseas Aid Program (AusAID) ; USAID United States Agency for International Development; JSI John Snow Inc.; IMC = International Medical Corps; MNS Mental, Neurological and Substance Use; CMD Common Mental Disorders; MoH Ministry of Health; UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; NIMH National Institute of Mental Health; CAFOD Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD)
  2. aClassification according to the World Bank at the time of the study
  3. bUniversity Faculty of Nursing
  4. cMention of ‘effects of extreme stressors on children and adolescents’ in PHC training topics (not community training)
  5. dLebanese Institute for Development Research Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC)
  6. eSome services users below age 18, but child and adolescent services not mentioned