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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis for the relationship between depress symptoms and health care utilization among Chinese older adults in 2015

From: Depressive symptoms and health service utilization among Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a national population-based longitudinal survey

Variables Model1 Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6
Inpatient care in 2015 (Full model) Outpatient care in 2015 (Full model) Inpatient care in 2015 (Rural) Outpatient care in 2015 (Rural) Inpatient care in 2015 (Urban) Outpatient care in 2015 (Urban)
OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI]
Depression (no)
Yes 1.209** [1.075,1.360] 1.394*** [1.261,1.542] 1.219** [1.055,1.408] 1.399*** [1.238,1.581] 1.190+ [0.972,1.458] 1.369*** [1.146,1.636]
Age 1.032*** [1.026,1.038] 1.004 [0.999,1.009] 1.027*** [1.019,1.035] 1.005 [0.998,1.012] 1.040*** [1.030,1.050] 1.001 [0.993,1.010]
Education 1.0004 [0.9857,1.0152] 1.016* [1.003,1.028] 0.999 [0.979,1.019] 1.010 [0.994,1.026] 1.003 [0.981,1.026] 1.028** [1.007,1.049]
Gender (female)
Male 1.083 [0.930,1.261] 0.883+ [0.774,1.008] 1.134 [0.927,1.388] 0.837* [0.705,0.993] 1.003 [0.793,1.268] 0.964 [0.780,1.191]
Marital status (unmarried and others)
Married 0.934 [0.798,1.092] 0.995 [0.862,1.149] 0.788* [0.649,0.956] 1.002 [0.837,1.199] 1.250 [0.954,1.636] 0.955 [0.749,1.217]
Hukou status (non-agricultural hukou)
Agricultural hukou 0.823* [0.709,0.955] 0.979 [0.858,1.117] 0.842 [0.626,1.133] 0.762* [0.594,0.979] 0.819* [0.684,0.982] 1.091 [0.929,1.281]
Smoking history (no)
Yes 0.909 [0.786,1.053] 0.909 [0.800,1.033] 0.845+ [0.698,1.023] 0.894 [0.759,1.052] 1.013 [0.807,1.272] 0.926 [0.753,1.139]
Medical insurance (no)
Yes 1.260 [0.924,1.718] 1.157 [0.896,1.493] 1.219 [0.819,1.812] 1.072 [0.781,1.472] 1.295 [0.788,2.130] 1.327 [0.861,2.045]
Self-report health (good)
Fair 1.384*** [1.193,1.606] 1.389*** [1.230,1.568] 1.458*** [1.189,1.788] 1.264** [1.082,1.476] 1.303* [1.047,1.622] 1.605*** [1.320,1.952]
Poor 2.343*** [1.986,2.765] 1.905*** [1.655,2.192] 2.416*** [1.940,3.008] 1.633*** [1.370,1.946] 2.267*** [1.751,2.937] 2.472*** [1.951,3.133]
Chronic (No)
Yes 1.982*** [1.718,2.287] 1.725*** [1.542,1.931] 2.115*** [1.751,2.555] 1.828*** [1.584,2.110] 1.807*** [1.450,2.251] 1.579*** [1.315,1.897]
Current living place (rural)
Urban 1.128+ [0.999,1.274] 0.945 [0.851,1.049]     
Region (east)
Central 1.101 [0.967,1.254] 1.148* [1.029,1.280] 1.090 [0.919,1.293] 1.216** [1.057,1.399] 1.125 [0.920,1.376] 1.060 [0.890,1.264]
West 1.264*** [1.125,1.421] 1.148** [1.039,1.269] 1.241** [1.066,1.444] 1.259*** [1.108,1.430] 1.296** [1.077,1.560] 0.979 [0.829,1.156]
Income 1.038 [0.986,1.091] 1.070** [1.024,1.119] 1.044 [0.979,1.113] 1.063* [1.006,1.123] 1.024 [0.942,1.112] 1.078+ [1.000,1.163]
Constant 0.006*** [0.003,0.012] 0.056*** [0.032,0.095] 0.009*** [0.004,0.022] 0.075*** [0.037,0.152] 0.004*** [0.001,0.010] 0.045*** [0.019,0.107]
R2 0.056 0.033 0.057 0.035 0.055 0.034
N 13,551 13,551 8500 8500 5051 5051
  1. Parentheses was reference group and 95% confidence interval of odds ratio;
  2. “1.000” was the results of keeping 3 decimal places
  3. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, +p < 0.1
  4. OR odds ratio