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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis for the relationship between depress symptoms and health care utilization among Chinese middle aged and older adults in 2013

From: Depressive symptoms and health service utilization among Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a national population-based longitudinal survey

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Inpatient care in 2013 (Full model) Outpatient care in 2013 (Full model) Inpatient care in 2013 (Rural) Outpatient care in 2013 (Rural) Inpatient care in 2013 (Urban) Outpatient care in 2013 (Urban)
OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI]
Depression (no)
Yes 1.349*** [1.194,1.524] 1.366*** [1.238,1.508] 1.276** [1.096,1.486] 1.400*** [1.241,1.578] 1.496*** [1.219,1.835] 1.287** [1.082,1.531]
Age 1.024*** [1.018,1.031] 1.005+ [1.000,1.010] 1.018*** [1.009,1.026] 1.007* [1.000,1.013] 1.035*** [1.024,1.045] 1.002 [0.993,1.010]
Education 1.005 [0.989,1.021] 1.007 [0.994,1.019] 1.012 [0.991,1.034] 1.008 [0.992,1.025] 0.999 [0.976,1.024] 1.005 [0.985,1.025]
Gender (female)
Male 1.107 [0.941,1.304] 0.877* [0.769,1.000] 0.971 [0.781,1.207] 0.846+ [0.713,1.004] 1.301* [1.013,1.669] 0.934 [0.759,1.149]
Marital status (unmarried and others)
Married 1.077 [0.906,1.281] 0.929 [0.807,1.069] 0.970 [0.780,1.206] 0.965 [0.809,1.152] 1.241 [0.929,1.660] 0.867 [0.687,1.093]
Hukou status (non-agricultural hukou)
Agricultural hukou 0.873+ [0.745, 1.023] 1.023 [0.898,1.166] 0.820 [0.599,1.124] 1.085 [0.828,1.424] 0.853 [0.703,1.035] 1.009 [0.862,1.181]
Smoking history (no)
Yes 0.929 [0.794,1.087] 0.873* [0.769,0.991] 0.990 [0.805,1.217] 0.890 [0.755,1.048] 0.853 [0.669,1.087] 0.845 [0.689,1.036]
Medical insurance (no)
Yes 1.819** [1.245,2.657] 1.196 [0.927,1.544] 1.522+ [0.958,2.418] 1.174 [0.847,1.626] 2.430** [1.252,4.714] 1.214 [0.805,1.833]
Self-report health (good)
Fair 1.422*** [1.199,1.686] 1.824*** [1.600,2.078] 1.182 [0.946,1.477] 1.829*** [1.538,2.175] 1.807*** [1.385,2.358] 1.828*** [1.498,2.231]
Poor 3.639*** [3.033,4.366] 3.627*** [3.136,4.195] 2.989*** [2.371,3.769] 3.595*** [2.981,4.336] 4.848*** [3.615,6.502] 3.720*** [2.943,4.702]
Chronic disease (no)
Yes 1.955*** [1.668,2.291] 1.897*** [1.690,2.130] 2.150*** [1.743,2.653] 1.909***[1.647,2.213] 1.703*** [1.335,2.172] 1.889*** [1.568,2.276]
Current living place (rural)
Urban 1.244*** [1.094,1.414] 1.044 [0.941,1.157]     
Region (east)
Central 1.323*** [1.152,1.520] 1.224*** [1.098,1.365] 1.322** [1.102,1.587] 1.442*** [1.253,1.658] 1.330** [1.072,1.649] 0.952 [0.799,1.134]
West 1.416*** [1.247,1.607] 1.230*** [1.113,1.359] 1.393*** [1.181,1.643] 1.341*** [1.180,1.526] 1.466*** [1.200,1.791] 1.096 [0.933,1.288]
Income 1.074* [1.016,1.135] 1.133*** [1.084,1.184] 1.102** [1.027,1.182] 1.121*** [1.061,1.185] 1.029 [0.941,1.126] 1.148*** [1.065,1.238]
Constant 0.003*** [0.002,0.006] 0.029*** [0.017,0.050] 0.006*** [0.002,0.016] 0.023*** [0.011,0.048] 0.001*** [0.000,0.005] 0.041*** [0.017,0.095]
R2 0.080 0.070 0.074 0.077 0.094 0.061
N 13,551 13,551 8500 8500 5051 5051
  1. Parentheses was reference group and 95% confidence interval of odds ratio
  2. “1.000/0.000” was the result of keeping 3 decimal places
  3. OR odds ratio
  4. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, +p < 0.1