Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of depressive symptoms and socio-demographic characteristics by inpatient and outpatient care utilization in 2013 (N = 13,551)

From: Depressive symptoms and health service utilization among Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a national population-based longitudinal survey

Variables Inpatient Outpatient
No Yes P-value No Yes P-value
Gender    0.236     < 0.000
Male 6103 (87.25) 892 (12.75)   5237 (74.87) 1758 (25.13)  
Female 5764 (87.92) 792 (12.08)   5296 (80.78) 1260 (19.22)  
Marital status    0.011    0.001
Unmarried 1178 (85.42) 201 (14.58)   1022 (74.11) 357 (25.89)  
Married 10,689 (87.82) 1483 (12.18)   9511 (78.14) 2661 (21.86)  
Hukou status    0.004    0.445
Non-agricultural hukou 2373 (85.95) 388 (14.05)   2161 (78.27) 600 (21.73)  
Agricultural hukou 9494 (87.99) 1296 (12.01)   8372 (77.59) 2418 (22.41)  
Smoking history    0.377     < 0.000
No 6559 (87.35) 950 (12.65)   5673 (75.55) 1836 (24.45)  
Yes 5308 (87.85) 734 (12.15)   4860 (80.44) 1182 (19.56)  
Medical insurance     < 0.000    0.045
No 410 (92.97) 31 (7.03)   360 (81.63) 81 (18.37)  
Yes 11,457 (87.39) 1653 (12.61)   10,173 (77.60) 2937 (22.40)  
Self-report health     < 0.000     < 0.000
Good 2992 (94.03) 190 (5.97)   2849 (89.53) 333 (10.47)  
Fair 6485 (90.12) 711 (9.88)   5720 (79.49) 1476 (20.51)  
Poor 2390 (75.32) 783 (24.68)   1964 (61.90) 1209 (38.10)  
Chronic disease     < 0.000     < 0.000
No 3605 (95.54) 208 (5.46)   3374 (88.49) 439 (11.51)  
Yes 8262 (84.84) 1476 (15.16)   7159 (73.52) 2579 (26.48)  
Current living place    0.006    0.703
Rural 7495 (88.18) 1005 (11.82)   6598 (77.62) 1902 (22.38)  
Urban 4372 (86.56) 679 (13.44)   3935 (77.91) 1116 (22.09)  
Region     < 0.000     < 0.000
East 4729 (90.32) 507 (9.68)   4250 (81.17) 986 (18.83)  
Central 2983 (86.56) 463 (13.44)   2624 (76.15) 822 (23.85)  
West 4155 (85.34) 714 (14.66)   3659 (75.15) 1210 (24.85)  
Depression     < 0.000     < 0.000
No 9277 (89.60) 978 (10.40)   8380 (80.93) 1974 (19.07)  
Yes 3072 (81.01) 706 (18.99)   2153 (67.34) 1044 (32.66)  
Variable Mean (Standard Deviation) Mean (Standard Deviation)   Mean (Standard Deviation) Mean (Standard Deviation)  
Age 59.00 (9.07) 61.40 (9.39)  < 0.000 59.14 (9.09) 59.84 (9.29)  < 0.000
Education (years) 5.44 (4.16) 5.10 (4.10) 0.002 5.48 (4.15) 5.11 (4.17)  < 0.000
Income 4.29 (1.04) 4.31 (1.02) 0.400 4.28 (1.04) 4.35 (1.04)  < 0.001