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Table 1 Health-care service utilization and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Depressive symptoms and health service utilization among Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a national population-based longitudinal survey

Variables Total frequency (%) Urban (%) Rural (%) P-value
Inpatient care in 2013     0.006
No 11,867 (87.57) 4372 (86.56) 7495 (88.18)  
Yes 1684 (12.43) 679 (13.44) 1005 (11.82)  
Outpatient care in 2013     0.703
No 10,533 (77.73) 3935 (77.91) 6598 (77.62)  
Yes 3018 (22.27) 1116 (22.09) 1902 (22.38)  
Inpatient care in 2015     0.011
No 11,637 (85.88) 4288 (84.89) 7349 (86.46)  
Yes 1914 (14.12) 763 (15.11) 1151 (13.54)  
Outpatient care in 2015     0.226
No 10,754 (79.36) 4036 (79.90) 6718 (79.04)  
Yes 2797 (20.64) 1015 (20.10) 1782 (20.96)  
Gender     0.028
Male 6556 (48.38) 2382 (47.16) 4174 (49.11)  
Female 6995 (51.62) 2669 (52.84) 4326 (50.89)  
Marital status     0.518
Unmarried 1379 (10.18) 503 (9.96) 876 (10.31)  
Married 12,172 (89.92) 4548 (90.04) 7624 (89.69)  
Hukou status      < 0.001
Non-agricultural hukou 2761 (20.37) 2374 (47.00) 387 (4.55)  
Agricultural hukou 10,790 (79.63) 2677 (53.00) 8113 (95.45)  
Smoking history      < 0.001
No 7509 (55.41) 2888 (57.18) 4621 (54.36)  
Yes 6042 (44.59) 2163 (42.82) 3879 (45.64)  
Medical insurance     0.507
No 441 (3.25) 171 (3.39) 270 (5.35)  
Yes 13,110 (96.75) 4880 (96.61) 8230 (94.65)  
Self-report health      < 0.001
Good 3182 (23.48) 1296 (25.66) 1886 (22.19)  
Fair 7196 (53.10) 2835 (56.13) 4361 (51.31)  
Poor 3173 (23.42) 920 (18.21) 2253 (26.50)  
Chronic disease     0.730
No 3813 (28.14) 1430(28.31) 2383 (28.04)  
Yes 9738 (71.86) 3621(71.69) 6117 (71.96)  
Current living place     
Rural 8500 (62.73)  
Urban 5051 (37.27)  
Region      < 0.001
East 5236 (38.64) 2166 (42.88) 3070 (36.12)  
Central 3446 (25.43) 1262 (24.99) 2184 (25.69)  
West 4869 (35.93) 1623 (32,13) 3246 (38.19)  
Depression      < 0.001
No 10,354 (76.41) 4120 (81.57) 6234 (73.34)  
Yes 3197 (23.59) 931 (18.43) 2266 (26.66)  
Variable Mean (Std.)    
Age 59.30 (9.14) 59.44 (9.22) 59.21 (9.09) 0.147
Education years 5.39 (4.15) 6.75 (4.25) 4.59 (3.88)  < 0.001
Income 4.29 (1.04) 4.63 (1.01) 4.10 (1.01)  < 0.001
N 13,551 8500 5051  
  1. “1.000” was the result of keeping 3 decimal places
  2. Income was logarithm
  3. Std. Standard deviation;