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Table 2 Psychological distress, mental health disorders and suicidal behaviours amongst enslaved versus non-enslaved Yazidi females

From: Measures of depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders amongst Yazidi female survivors of ISIS slavery and violence

  Total group
(n = 348)
N (%)
Formerly enslaved (n = 139)
N (%)
Non-enslaved slaves
(n = 209)
N (%)
χ2 P
Psychological Distress Levels (K10)     139.958  < 0.001**
 None 105 (30.2) 8 (5.8) 97 (46.4)   
 Mild 65 (18.7) 14 (10.1) 51 (24.4)   
 Moderate 34 (9.8) 7 (5) 27 (12.9)   
 Severe 144 (41.4) 110 (79.1) 34 (16.3)   
Depression (PHQ-9)     119.284  < 0.001**
 Minimal or none 27 (7.8) 4 (2.9) 23 (11)   
 Mild 27 (7.8) 12 (8.6) 87 (41.6)   
 Moderate 87 (25) 25 (18) 62 (29.7)   
 Moderately severe 80 (23) 47 (33.8) 33 (15.8)   
 Severe 55 (15.8) 51 (36.7) 4 (1.9)   
Generalised Anxiety (GAD-7)     111.283  < 0.001**
 None 60 (17.2) 9 (6.5) 51 (24.4)   
 Mild 122 (35.1) 19 (13.7) 103 (49.3)   
 Moderate 106 (30.5) 59 (42.4) 47 (22.5)   
 Severe 60 (17.2) 52 (37.4) 8 (3.8)   
Probable PTSD (HTQ-IV)     87.355  < 0.001**
 No 137 (39.4) 13 (9.4) 124 (59.3)   
 Yes 211 (60.6) 126 (90.6) 85 (40.7)   
Suicide thoughts     19.166  < 0.001**
 None 259 (74.4) 86 (61.9) 173 (82.8)   
 Yes 89 (25.6) 53 (38.1) 36 (17.2)   
Suicide attempts     3.991 0.064
 None 314 (90.2) 120 (86.3) 194 (92.8)   
 Yes 34 (9.8) 19 (13.7) 15 (7.2)   
Method of suicide attempt     9.576 0.088
 Drug ingestion 5 (18.5) 4 (28.6) 1 (7.7)   
 Self- immolation 5 (18.5) 1 (7.1) 4 (30.8)   
 Hanging 6 (22.2) 2 (14.3) 4 (30.8)   
 Drowning 3 (11.1) 2 (14.3) 1 (7.7)   
 Wrist cutting 4 (14.8) 4 (28.6) 0 (0)   
 Electrocution 4 (14.8) 1 (7.1) 3 (23.1)