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Table 1 Factors associated with psychological distress among people who use drugs in bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses (n = 1598)

From: Prevalence and social determinants of psychological distress among people who use drugs in Cambodia

Variables in the model GHQ-12 ≤ 2 (n = 927) GHQ-12 > 2 (n = 671) Bivariate logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
n (%) n (%) OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 298 (32.1) 298 (44.4) Reference Reference
 Male 629 (67.9) 373 (55.6) 0.59 (0.48–0.73)*** 0.54 (0.41–0.69)***
Age group
  < 25 351 (37.8) 200 (29.8) Reference Reference
 25–34 380 (41.0) 300 (44.7) 1.38 (1.10–1.74)** 1.31 (1.00–1.72)*
  ≥ 35 196 (21.2) 171 (25.5) 1.53 (1.17–2.00)** 1.65 (1.18–2.32)**
Current marital status
 Married 349 (37.6) 251 (37.4) Reference Reference
 Never married 448 (48.3) 287 (42.8) 1.42 (1.06–1.90)* 1.01 (0.76–1.33)
 Divorced/separated 130 (14.1) 133 (19.8) 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 1.08 (0.78–1.49)
Level of formal education completed
 Primary education or none (0–6) 472 (50.9) 382 (56.9) Reference Reference
 Lower secondary education (7–9) 265 (28.6) 182 (27.1) 0.84 (0.67–1.07) 1.06 (0.82–1.37)
 Upper secondary or higher (≥ 10) 190 (20.5) 107 (15.9) 0.69 (0.53–0.91)** 0.90 (0.66–1.23)
Type of living arrangements
 With family/relatives 438 (47.2) 314 (46.8) Reference Reference
 On the streets 87 (9.4) 72 (10.7) 1.15 (0.82–1.63) 0.70 (0.46–1.06)
 In own dwelling 230 (24.8) 131 (19.5) 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.56 (0.41–0.76)***
 With friends 94 (10.2) 72 (10.8) 1.07 (0.76–1.50) 0.88 (0.61–1.27)
 Others 78 (8.4) 82 (12.2) 1.47 (1.04–2.06)*** 1.11 (0.76–1.63)
Duration of drug use
  ≤ 2 years 584 (63.0) 380 (56.6) Reference Reference
 3–5 years 187 (20.2) 147 (21.9) 1.21 (0.94–1.55) 1.19 (0.90–1.57)
 6–9 years 54 (5.8) 44 (6.6) 1.25 (0.82–1.90) 1.07 (0.67–1.71)
  ≥ 10 years 102 (11.0) 100 (14.9) 1.51 (1.11–2.04)*** 1.11 (0.75–1.63)
Had been sent to a drug rehabilitation center
 No 821 (88.6) 521 (77.6) Reference Reference
 Yes 106 (11.4) 150 (22.4) 2.23 (1.70–2.93)*** 2.05 (1.47–2.85)***
Injection as mode of first drug use
 No 838 (90.4) 609 (90.8) Reference Reference
 Yes 89 (9.6) 62 (9.2) 0.95 (0.68–1.35) 0.57 (0.35–0.92)*
Had been sent to prison in the past 12 months
 No 834 (90.0) 583 (86.9) Reference Reference
 Yes 93 (10.0) 88 (13.1) 1.35 (0.99–1.84) 0.99 (0.69–1.43)
Had been slapped, kicked by parents/guardians
 No 477 (51.5) 250 (37.3) Reference Reference
 Yes 450 (48.5) 421 (62.7) 1.78 (1.45–2.18)*** 1.13 (0.88–1.46)
Had been insulted by family members
 No 535 (57.7) 245 (36.5) Reference Reference
 Yes 392 (42.3) 426 (63.5) 2.37 (1.93–2.91)*** 2.10 (1.63–2.71)***
Had been sexually harassed/abused by someone
 No 780 (84.1) 468 (69.7) Reference Reference
 Yes 147 (15.8) 203 (30.3) 2.3 (1.81–2.93)*** 1.80 (1.38–2.35)***
Had someone taking care of them when they got sick
 No 86 (9.3) 83 (12.4) Reference Reference
 Yes 841 (90.7) 588 (87.6) 0.72 (0.53–0.99)* 0.69 (0.48–1.01)*
Had emotional support from family members
 No 124 (13.4) 111 (16.5) Reference Reference
 Yes 803 (86.6) 560 (83.5) 0.78 (0.59–1.03) 1.19 (0.86–1.65)
Injected drugs in the past 12 months
 No 769 (83.0) 531 (79.1) Reference Reference
 Yes 158 (17.0) 140 (20.9) 1.28 (0.99–1.65) 1.40 (0.95–2.06)
Current HIV status
 Negative 588 (63.4) 430 (64.1) Reference Reference
 Positive 31 (3.3) 47 (7.0) 2.07 (1.29–3.32)** 1.63 (0.98–2.71)
 Do not know 308 (33.3 194 (28.9) 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 1.10 (0.87–1.40)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, GHQ General Health Questionnaire, OR odds ratio
  2. Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and a total score of GHQ-12 > 2 was used to define high psychological distress
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001