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Table 6 Association of participant characteristics and depression

From: Depression and experience of incarceration in North Central Nigeria: a situation analysis at Makurdi medium security prison

Variable Depression status Test statistic P-value
Not depressed
n (%)
Depressed
n (%)
Gender
 Male 230 (63.2) 134 (36.8) χ2 = 3.35 0.07
 Female 7 (41.2) 10 (58.8)   
Age (in years)
 15–34 198 (61.9) 122 (38.1) χ2 = 0.09 0.76
 ≥ 35 39 (63.9) 22 (36.1)   
 Mean age ± SD 28.03 ± 7.53 27.82 ± 6.28 t = 0.28 0.78
Educational status
 Uneducated 15 (68.2) 7 (31.9) χ2 = 0.36 0.55
 Educated 222 (61.8) 137 (38.2)   
Religion
 Islam 14 (60.9) 9 (39.1) χ2 = 0.02 0.53
 Christianity 223 (62.3) 135 (37.7)   
Tribe
 Tiv 160 (63.7) 91 (36.3) χ2 = 0. 74 0.39
 Others 77 (59.2) 53 (40.8)   
State of origin
 Indigene (Benue) 201 (62.8) 119 (37.2) χ2 = 0. 31 0.58
 Non-indigene 36 (59.0) 25 (41.0)   
Employment before arrest
 Yes 188 (60.1) 125 (39.9) χ2 = 3.42 0.04*
 No 49 (72.1) 19 (27.9)   
Occupation
 Civil servant 9 (60.0) 6 (40.0) χ2 = 0.32 0.53
 Self employed 179 (60.1) 119 (39.9)   
 Mean monthly income (Naira) 37,871 ± 47,070 41,452 ± 99,910 F = 0.18 0.67
Monthly income (in Naira)
 < 20,000 61 (70.9) 57 (48.3) χ2 = 8.03 0.003*
 > 20,000 176 (66.9) 87 (33.1)   
Marital status
 Single 142 (65.1) 76 (34.9) χ2 = 1.86 0.10
 Married 95 (58.3) 68 (41.7)   
Days in police custody (days)
 < 15 101 (56.4) 75 (42.6) χ2 = 3.23 0.45
 > 15 136 (66.3) 69 (33.7)   
Mean no. days in custody 27.6 ± 34.11 28.20 ± 53.6 t = 0.02 0.89
Days in prison
 ≤ 30 15 (65.2) 8 (34.8) χ2 = 12.01 0.002*
 31–150 78 (51.7) 73 (48.3)   
 > 150 144 (69.6) 63 (30.4)   
Mean no. days in prison 431.03 ± 590.03 322.37 ± 402.23 t = 3.80 0.05
Appeared in court
 Yes 212 (62.5) 127 (37.5) χ2 = 0.01 0.54
 No 24 (63.2) 14 (36.8)   
Number of times in court
 1–5 108 (57.4) 80 (42.6) χ2 = 5.12 0.06
 6–20 74 (69.8) 32 (30.2)   
 > 20 34 (68.0) 16 (32.0)   
Represented by a lawyer
 Yes 162 (63.5) 93 (36.5) χ2 = 0.29 0.33
 No 74 (60.7) 48 (39.3)   
Satisfaction with Healthcare provided
 Yes 127 (69.4) 56 (30.6) χ2 = 7.75 0.006*
 No 110 (55.6) 88 (44.4)   
Quality of accommodation
 Good 158 (64.8) 86 (35.2) χ2 = 1.87 0.10
 Poor 79 (57.7) 58 (42.3)   
  1. *significant