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Table 1 Demographic and psychosocial variables associated with symptoms of depression

From: Identifying and treating maternal mental health difficulties in Afghanistan: A feasibility study

  Total sample
N = 215
n (%)
Not depressed
PHQ9 < 12
N = 84 (39%)
Depressed
PHQ9 \(\ge 12\)
N = 131 (61%)
p-value
Age (average in years, SD) 26.3 (5.4) 25.8 (5.1) 27.1 (5.7) 0.055
Exclusively breastfeeding 86 (65) 21 (64) 65 (66) 0.833
Child malnutrition 12 (6) 2 (2) 10 (10) 0.014
Anxiety 84 (39) 18 (15) 66 (67)  < 0.001
Trauma 28 (13) 4 (3) 24 (24)  < 0.001
Sleep disturbance 98 (46) 17 (15) 81 (83)  < 0.001
Fatigue 116 (54) 28 (24) 88 (90)  < 0.001
Variation in appetite 104 (48) 19 (16) 85 (87)  < 0.001
Irritability 77 (36) 14 (12) 63 (64)  < 0.001
Headaches 65 (30) 13 (11) 52 (53)  < 0.001
Subjective feeling of sadness 93 (43) 18 (15) 75 (77)  < 0.001
Marital dispute 40 (19) 7 (6) 33 (34)  < 0.001
Emotional distress 75 (35) 15 (13) 60 (61)  < 0.001
Self-reported postnatal depression 124 (58) 31 (27) 93 (95)  < 0.001
Grief/Loss 74 (34) 18 (15) 56 (57)  < 0.001
Intimate partner violence 30 (14) 6 (5) 24 (24)  < 0.001
Emotional distress of child 67 (31) 14 (12) 53 (54)  < 0.001
Psychosomatic complaints 60 (28) 12 (10) 48 (19)  < 0.001
Social isolation 64 (30) 13 (11) 51 (52)  < 0.001
Acute stress 28 (13) 4 (3) 24 (24)  < 0.001