|Reference; program title; Country||Program description (setting, modality, lived experience etc.)||Study aim and methodology||Sample characteristics (where relevant)||Key findings (where relevant)|
References: [29, 30]|
Setting: Online messaging boards (forums); Modality: Group support;|
Target group: Users of online suicide forum
Lived experience: 88% of study participants reported suicide ideation; 54% of participants had made at least one suicide attempt in their life. 28% had suicidal thoughts for the first time 1–3 years ago; 34% had suicidal thoughts more than 5 years ago for the first time; 12% never had suicidal thoughts.
Aim: Investigate whether the use of online suicide message boards is harmful or beneficial to people with suicidality.|
Methodology: Quantitative cross-sectional study; Convenience sample; online questionnaire of people using the online suicide message board
“selbstmordforum.de”; Analysis of users’ socio-demographic characteristics, their motivations for participation, what content they shared, and what effect participation in online suicide messaging boards had on participants
|164 participants; 50% male, 50% female; sample biased to young adults with 59% under 21 years and 88% under 30 years; 80% single; 67% students or in higher education settings||
Online suicide forums do show signs of support and constructive help through conversations with other people with lived experience.|
Decrease in intensity of suicidal thoughts during the respondents’ participation in the suicide forum; 31% of participants say the decrease is due to their participation.
Participation does not seem to increase help-seeking. Only 22% of respondents said they were more motivated to seek help.
Motivation to use the forum was feeling understood and receiving comforting reactions.
Title: Suicide messaging boards
Setting: Online messaging boards (forums); Modality: Group support;|
Target group: Users of online suicide messaging boards
Lived experience: Suicidality of the online user was coded according to the content in the comments on the messaging board.
Aim: Identifying communication patterns that can be used to improve suicidality of participants on online suicide message boards.|
Methodology: Qualitative study;
Secondary data analysis of a random selection of threads from 7 pre-identified suicide message boards (online forum); Thematic analysis of threads
|401 threads from anti-suicide boards, 382 threads from neutral boards; 399 threads from pro-suicide boards||Constructive advice, active listening, collaborative problem solving, expression of sympathy, debunking the suicide myths, and provision of alternatives to suicide and positive stories of lived experience help to improve a participant’s suicidality.|
Program: Montgomery County Emergency Service—Peer specialist support
Setting: Hospital, patient care;|
Modality: Mixed mode, including one-on-one peer support; two part-time peer specialists provide services to in-patients, families and community members including support groups, one-on-one counseling, training and capacity building in the community.
Target group: Patients of a psychiatric hospital and people in crisis support
Lived experience: Peer specialists have past experience of suicide and received peer support and recovery training.
|Aim: Description of suicide prevention service within a hospital—in-patient care||N/A.||N/A.|
Program: Health Intervention Training—Mutual Aid Network (HIT-MAN)
Modality: Peer group support based on a social network approach; Objectives are to encourage students to support and, in some cases, refer their friends who have been thinking about suicide or showing very poor self-esteem and signs of depression to a trusted adult (who will also be part of the HIT-MAN training network).
Target group: School students (adolescents), teachers and school communities
Lived experience: Students in peer groups have lived experience of mental health problems which are seen as early warning signs of the trajectory to suicide.
|Aim: Description of a suicide prevention program that helps students to identify problems of extreme stress, anxiety and suicidal feelings in their peers, including training and peer support groups.||N/A.||N/A.|
Program: Peers for Valued Living (PREVAIL)
Setting: Inpatient psychiatric unit and post discharge care|
Modality: One-on-one peer support; Peer specialists first meet patients in inpatient unit and then provide support for 12 weeks after discharge (max 16 meetings); flexible meeting arrangements (frequency and duration);
Target group: Patients admitted to an inpatient psychiatry due to suicidality
Lived experience: Peer specialists had lived experience of serious suicidal thoughts or behaviour.
Aim: Development and pilot testing of a peer specialist intervention to reduce suicide risk,|
Methodology: Pilot randomised controlled trial; randomisation of participants to normal care and PREVAIL peer support intervention;
Semi-structured interviews to capture participant experiences and feedback
|70 adult patients (age 18 or older) from two inpatient psychiatric units; patients had to have history of suicidal ideation or attempt; patients were excluded from participation if they showed unstable psychosis, cognitive impairment, severe personality disorder, invasive therapy. 34 were allocated to the peer support arm and 36 received usual care.||
Feasibility and acceptability for the program was assessed by collecting quantitative and qualitative data on peer specialist performance and training.|
No data was provided on the efficacy of the program to reduce suicidality due to lack of power in the trial.
Program: Alternatives to Suicide through the Western Mass Recovery Learning Community (RLC)
Setting: Community led intervention; Modality: Peer support group for people who experience suicidality; underpinned by the key principles of Validation + Curiosity + Vulnerability + Community; It creates conditions that support recovery at both the individual and community level through trauma-sensitive peer supports and the development of a regional network.|
Target group: People who experience suicidality (not bereavement)
Lived experience: Peer support groups are open to anyone with lived experience of suicidal thoughts or attempts; Leaders who struggled with thoughts of suicide or suicide attempts and who wanted to support others.
Aim: Description of the Alternative to Suicide (ATS) peer support program, an innovative peer-led suicide prevention program from the Western Massachusetts Recovery Learning Community (RLC).|
Methodology: Internal feedback survey with attendees of support groups.
|not available||Early findings from an internal feedback survey with attendees of the support groups: attendees felt most strongly that attending the groups was helpful because they could talk freely; attending had improved at least one area in attendees’ lives; increased sense of community and increased understanding on why suicidal thoughts may come up were areas with greatest improvement.|
References: [33, 36, 37]|
Program: The Way Back Support Service—Peer CARE Companion Program
Setting: Community-based intervention; Modality: One-on-one support;|
Target group: People with lived experience of suicide (suicidal crisis or after a suicide attempt)
Lived experience: Peer support is customised depending on whether peers are to be supporting people at risk. Lived experience of the peer care companion will be matched with the person in need.
|Aim: Description of the Peer CARE Companion program which provides peer support to people with lived experience of suicide or bereaved by suicide.||N/A.||N/A.|