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TableĀ 1 Types of NSHWs in included records

From: Implementation outcomes of cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by non-specialists for common mental disorders and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Type of NSHW Definition Trained & supervised by: Study Author (year)
Lay health workers (e.g. community health workers or Lady Health Workers) Non-specialist workers linked to the local health system (part of formal health workforce)
Living locally; often mobile in the community
Empathy, interpersonal skills, motivation
Gatekeepers to the community for new interventions
Senior health promotion officers or Mental health specialists Friendship Bench Programme Chibanda (2016)
Chibanda (2017)
Problem-solving therapy Munodawafa (2017)
Nyatsanza (2016)
Lay counsellors (e.g. lay-helpers) Selection based on competency assessment (delivery & skills)
Intensive supervision needed
Lay health workers or Mental health specialists Common Elements Treatment Approach Murray (2014)
Bolton (2014)
Healthy Activity Programme Chowdhary (2016)
Trauma-focused CBT vs. Problem-solving therapy Dawson (2018)
Problem Management Plus Khan (2017)
Counselling for Alcohol Problems Nadkarni (2015)
Nadkarni (2017)
Peers Similar lived experience as service users
Age, gender and language matching as facilitators
Less formal boundaries/more flexibility in delivery
Non-specialist facilitators Thinking Healthy Peer Atif (2016)
Atif (2017)
Singla (2014)
Paraprofessional counsellors Little or no background in counselling or psychology
Trained and supervised to deliver manualised therapy
Mental health specialists Cognitive processing therapy Bass (2013)
Group intervention Tol (2008)
Culturally adapted group CBT Papas (2010)
Papas (2011)