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Table 3 Characteristics of study participants

From: Equitable access to mental healthcare integrated in primary care for people with severe mental disorders in rural Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

CharacteristicAccessed primary care-based mental health care (n = 300)
Number (%)
Did not access mental health care (n = 61)
Number (%)
Statistical significance
Test statistic (degrees of freedom)P-value
Socio-demographic
 Age (years)
  18–2465 (21.7)13 (21.1)z − 0.78 (1)0.44b
  25–3480 (26.7)23 (38.0)
  35–4479 (26.3)12 (19.7)
  45–5955 (18.3)8 (13.1)
  60+21 (7.0)5 (8.0)
 Gender
  Male173 (57.4)37 (60.6)χ2 0.21 (1)0.64
  Female128 (42.5)24 (39.3)
 Residence
  Urban60 (20.0)4 (6.6)χ2 6.28 (1)0.01
  Rural240 (80.0)57 (93.4)
 Marital status
  Married102 (33.8)17 (27.8)χ2 0.83 (1)0.36
  Not married199 (66.1)44 (72.1)
 Education
  Formal education144 (47.8)30 (49.1)χ2 0.04 (1)0.85
  Non-literate157 (52.1)31 (50.8)
 Distance from health centre
  60 min or less193 (84.2)36 (15.72)z 1.26 (1)0.21b
  61–120 min60 (81.0)14 (18.9)
  121–180 min36 (90.0)4 (10.0)
  More than 180 min11 (61.1)7 (38.8)
 Religion
  Orthodox Christian271 (90.3)57 (93.4)χ2 1.01 (2)0.60
  Muslim10 (3.2)2 (3.8)
  Protestant/other20 (6.4)2 (3.8)
 Social support
  Intermediate or good206 (69.3)41 (67.2)χ2 0.11 (1)0.74
  Poor91 (30.6)20 (32.7)
 Discrimination (total score on DISC-12)Median 4 (25th centile 1, 75th centile 8)Median 3 (25th centile 0, 75th centile 9)χ2 0.23 (1)0.63c
 Poverty index (0 to 8)aMean 4.2 (SD 1.8)Mean 4.4 (SD 1.9)t 0.66 (352)0.51
ClinicalN (%)N (%)  
Physical/sensory impairment (“great deal of difficulty”)
 Mobility26 (8.6)7 (11.5)χ2 0.18 (1)0.68
 Using hands or fingers19 (6.3)6 (9.8)
 Seeing4 (1.3)1 (1.6)
 Hearing19 (6.3)1 (1.6)
Hazardous alcohol use
 AUDIT < 8221 (73.4)44 (72.1)χ2 0.04 (1)0.84
 AUDIT ≥ 880 (26.5)17 (27.8)  
Disability (total score on WHODAS 12)Mean 35.7 (SD 11.5)Mean 30.5 (SD 13.6)t 3.13
(df 356)
< 0.01
  1. WHODAS 12 World Health Organization Disability assessment Schedule, SD standard deviation, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Checklist
  2. aPoverty index = composite including type of roof, kitchen, having mobile phone, television, radio, access to electricity, sanitation, and source of water
  3. bTest for trend
  4. cKruskal–Wallis equality-of-populations rank test