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Table 1 Epidemiological study of child and adolescent mental health problems in Nepal

From: Child and adolescent mental health problems in Nepal: a scoping review

Study Study design Diagnostic tool Study sample Sample size (n) Age range Prevalence
Acharya et al. [23] Cross-sectional study Trauma exposure questionnaire and Child PTSD scale (CPSS) Community-base sample 800 7–16 PTSD-51% among school-aged children in Kathmandu district
Kohrt et al. [24] Cohort study Depression Self Rating Scale
SCARED-5
Child PTSD symptom scale (CPSS)
Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire
Function Impairment tool
Former child solider vs Community-base sample Case 141 former child soldiers, 141 never conscripted children Not available 53.2% of child soldiers had depression, anxiety-46.1%, PTSD symptoms-55.3%, Psychological difficulties-39%, and function impairment-62.4%
Child soldiers had greater odds of meeting cutoff for depression (OR = 3.56, 95% CI 2.33–5.43), PTSD, Psychological difficulties (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.53–5.51), and function impairment (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.41–2.96)
Ojha et al. [25] Cross-sectional study Child Behaviour Checklist 6.18 Homeless children 126 6–18 Emotional and behavioural problem-28.6%
Conduct problem was most common among male children 8.77%, followed by ODD 5.26%, ADHD 3.5%, Anxiety 3.50%
Anxiety was most common in female children 13.04%, followed by depression 7.24%, conduct 4.34%
Heys et al. [26] Cross sectional Autism Quotient-10 translated version in Nepali General Population 4098 10–13 14 out of 4098 children scored greater than 6 out of 10, indicative of autistic symptomatology
Estimated true prevalence of Autism is 3 in per 1000 (95% CI 2–5 in 1000)
Silwal et al. [27] Cross-sectional study Child Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder Scale (CPSS)
Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS)
School-based sample 893 11–17 The prevalence of PTSS in the Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu districts were 39.5% and 10.7%, and depression symptoms were 40.4% and 23.2% respectively
Timalsina et al. [28] Cross-sectional study Paediatric Symptoms Checklist (Y-PSC) School-based sample 287 12–19 12.09% of the adolescent had psychosocial problems
While categorizing the psychosocial problems, Internalizing problems (44.6%), ADHD (25.8%) and externalizing problems (4.2%)
Bista et al. [29] Cross-sectional study Paediatric Symptoms Checklist (Y-PSC) School-based sample 787 11–19 17.03% of adolescent had psychosocial dysfunction