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Table 4 Youth outcome research within integrated community-based youth service hub models

From: Key attributes of integrated community-based youth service hubs for mental health: a scoping review

Program Sample size (N) Outcome measures Assessment time points Comparative data Key results
headspace [51] 890 K10
Initial assessment
6th session
10th session
Different staging groups Attenuated syndrome (stage 1b) youth used significantly more services than help-seeking (stage 1a) youth, including significantly higher rates of psychotropic medication prescription (9.3% vs. 43.6%)
At service entry, Stage 1a youth started with significantly lower levels of psychological distress and significantly higher levels of functioning and showed improvement only in psychological distress over 10 sessions
Stage 1b youth remained impaired on both measures after 10 sessions but showed modest improvements in levels of psychological distress and functioning
headspace [84] 26,058 headspace clients K10
Varied—last recorded K10 Normative population data
Other treatment group
No treatment group
Results indicate a small program effect
Psychological distress of almost half of headspace clients decreased, with 13.3% experiencing a clinically significant reduction, 9.4% a reliable reduction, and 24.3% an insignificant reduction
Psychological distress did not change for almost 29%, and increased for nearly 1 in 4. Youth with only 2–3 service occasions were overrepresented in these groups
Suicidal ideation reduced significantly even among youth who showed insignificant or no reduction in psychological distress
Youth with improved mental health showed positive economic and social outcomes
Reduction in psychological distress over time for headspace group was significantly greater than the other treatment and no treatment groups
headspace [74] 70 youth
20 carers
Semi-structured interviews
Varied—Wave 1 time point
None at this Wave 92% reported improved mental health since coming to headspace
79% of youth 12–17 and 48% of youth 18–25 reported improved education engagement
71% of youth 14–17 and 55% of youth 18–25 reported improved work ability
Youth reported improved relationships with family (12–17: 81%; 18–25: 58%) and friends (12–17: 72%; 18–25: 58%)
54% reported improved physical health
Frequency of using at least one illicit substance decreased from 63 to 40%; three-quarters reported better managing emotions without substance use
85% of carers very satisfied with outcomes from child’s headspace involvement
headspace [73] 24,034 headspace clients; 651 at 90-day follow up K10
K10: prior to 1st, 3rd, 6th, 10th, and 15th visits
SOFAS: each visit
90 days after ending services
Comparative outpatient data for RCI score
Netherlands mental health clinic
NOCC report
Psychological distress significantly reduced in more than one-third of youth
Psychosocial functioning improved for a similar proportion
60% experienced significant change when considering improvement in either measure
Improvements for youth with greater distress and poorer functioning at intake seen among those who attended more sessions
Rate of reliable improvement in psychosocial functioning higher than Netherlands mental health clinic serving similar age range (31 vs. 19%)
Outcomes similar to child/adolescent results of NOCC report; higher than adult findings
Jigsaw [45] 709 (first session)
315 (final session)
CORE questionnaire (12–16 year olds: YP-CORE; 17–25 year olds: CORE-10) First session
Final session (average is 4.4 sessions over 13 weeks)
None Significant differences in pre- and post-intervention levels on both measures
89% showed clinical levels of psychological distress pre-intervention, with 52% reporting moderate/severe or severe levels of psychological distress
At final session, majority had healthy (47.2%) or low (28.8%) levels of psychological distress
62% showed reliable and clinically significant improvement on the CORE-10; 22% showed reliable improvement only
68% showed reliable improvement on the YP-CORE
Mom Power group (Corner Health Center) [87] 23 Primarily self- rating scales
Not further specified
Post-intervention (10 weeks) None Improvements in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and decreased rates of psychiatric diagnoses post-intervention
Self-rate as less guilt and shame regarding parenting skills post-intervention
Model [85]
42 PSI
Being a parent scale
Brigance Screen
Language Assessments
Speech measures
Prior to service entry
12 months post admission
None Large effect size changes in child-focused outcomes including externalizing behaviors, child well-being, and parent–child interactions
71% of children with delays in the clinical range upon initial developmental screening were within the normal range post-treatment; 41% moved from the below average range to scores within the normal range in language development
Youth One Stop Shops [38] Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified 94% of clients surveyed believed services effective in improving health and well-being
Little robust evidence of health outcomes for youth
Youth One Stop Shops [127] Total N = 333
Short-term: N = 272; long-term: N = 257
Rating scale July–August 2012
July–Dec 2012
1st visit—Dec 2012
None Short term—10% deteriorated, 56% unchanged, 34% improved
Long term—17% deteriorated, 37% unchanged, 46% improved
Youth with complex needs—3% deteriorated, 39% unchanged, 58% improved
90% of youth and 80% of caregivers interviewed reported the integrated services were a crucial contributor to change
Youthspace; now Forward Thinking Birmingham [37] Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Only 10% of those referred to the service required secondary care
Majority of youth responded well to one-off expert assessment and personalized plan, brief to medium psychological intervention and other support networks
32% were signposted to support network for focused work relating to education, employment and training, with 65% having positive outcome
Youth Wellness Centre [86] Ranges: 17–44 K10
90 days post-intake
None Significant reduction in psychological distress (K10), emotional dysregulation (DERS), and borderline symptoms (BSL-23) at 90 days post-intake
Significant reduction in days bothered by mental health problems, days not meeting responsibilities, and days with problems paying attention as measured by GAIN
Significant increase in family relationships satisfaction, general happiness (GAIN)
  1. K10 Kessler-10, SOFAS Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, CORE Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation, YP-CORE Young Person’s Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation, PSI Parenting Stress Index, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist, NCFAS North Carolina Family Assessment Scale, GAS Goal Attainment Scaling, DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, BSL-23 Borderline Symptom List-23, GAIN Global Appraisal of Individual Needs, RCI Reliable Change Index, NOCC National Outcomes and Casemix Collection