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Table 3 Application of common principles of integrated community-based youth service hub models of primary focus in the review

From: Key attributes of integrated community-based youth service hubs for mental health: a scoping review

Program Improving access to care and early intervention Youth and family participation and engagement Youth-friendly settings and services Evidence-informed approaches Partnerships and collaborations
ACCESS Open Minds Provides timely access, early identification [39, 40]
Employs clinician as single contact point for direct, rapid access to assessment (72 h; [40, 41])
Utilizes telemedicine for rapid remote assessment [40, 41]
Requires no referral or specific symptom [40, 41]
Engages youth and families in project conceptualization, core values, implementation, and research [39, 40]
Includes youth as full care partners and encourages participation of youth and families at all levels (e.g., peer support, service planning, evaluation, research [40, 41])
Commits to a youth-friendly, empowering culture [40, 41]
Offers youth-friendly physical spaces called Youth Space as portals for help-seeking and venues for peer support activities [13, 40]
Provides access to evidence-informed mental health care [39]
Utilizes needs-based staging model [40, 41]
Generates evidence and tests effectiveness of service model [13, 40]
Forms coalition of partners integrating research into care [39, 40]
Includes network of youth, family/carer, community, service provider, researcher, and policy/decision maker stakeholder groups [40, 41]
Utilizes partnerships with emergency/hospital services [40, 41]
Forward Thinking Birmingham Provides rapid response and assessment/diagnostic formation to GP within 1 week [13, 37]
Improves access to effective support and provides range of services based on principles of prevention/early intervention [13]
Consults extensively with youth and conducted qualitative research on experiences with existing services [14]
Designs website for advice, education, and individualized assessment based on youth input [14]
Emphasizes non-stigmatizing, youth-friendly environments and services [37] Uses CBT as default evidence-based intervention [14] Leverages partnership with agency focused on education, skill training, entrepreneurship, social inclusion and employment [14]
Creates consortium of NHS partners (child/adult services), voluntary sector, and private healthcare organization [13]
Foundry Improves access to youth mental health, substance use, and primary care services [43]
Offers drop-in services [43]
Provides online access and local walk-in centers [42]
Improves service providers’ and community members’ knowledge of how to access services [76]
Includes prevention and early intervention as core service components [43]
Designs service delivery and makes decisions with youth participation to reduce service barriers, better meet needs, and promote youth-friendly approaches [43]
Involves youth in staff recruitment; utilizes Youth Advisory Groups [43, 98]
Promotes engagement activities (e.g., focus groups and journey mapping) to make youth and families’ experience central to the process [75, 79]
Utilizes youth-friendly storefronts, non-stigmatizing centers; offers accessible hours and preferable locations [43]
Employs friendly health and service providers [42]
Utilizes evidence-based best practices [42]
Uses integrated e-health based on emerging evidence [43]
Links expanded implementation to outcomes and evaluation results [43]
Forms governing council based on partnership of several organizations [43]
Utilizes partnerships for peer and housing support, income assistance, phone/chat/email/text supports, and online therapies [43]
Plans collaborations for public health approaches and Aboriginal youth needs [43]
Partners with school districts and communities for mental health awareness [75]
headspace Offers highly accessible model of care [30, 31]
Provides physical health services to allow for stigma-free access point [14]
Utilizes clinical staging approach to support early and pre-emptive intervention [90]
Develops national and local youth participation initiatives [31, 59]
Consults youth advisory groups about various matters (e.g., youth friendly environment, staff recruitment, operational decisions; [31, 59, 74])
Solicits feedback from youth and families through exit surveys, audits, websites and social media, feedback box, and focus groups [31, 70, 80]
Promotes youth decision making about care and peer support [31, 106]
Assesses satisfaction and identifies barriers [80, 110]
Prioritizes youth participation to achieve youth friendliness [74]
Creates youth-friendly atmosphere: youth art, structural building changes, youth-friendly location, information of interest to youth in waiting area [31, 70]
Facilitates youth participation in mental health care via physical set-up of clinics and being made to feel welcome by all staff [31, 60]
Provides evidence-based care within a clinical staging framework [31, 90]
Utilizes CBT-based interventions for depression, anxiety, and psychosis, and motivational interviewing and behavior contingencies for substance use [90]
Provides CBT most often for all primary concerns [73]
Plans to produce evidence-based resources to support sites in using evidence-based practices [90]
Designs and develops model with input from consortium of research and academic institutes, practice network, and psychological society [90]
Links to local specialist services, schools, and other community-based organizations [31, 90]
Identifies key agency to lead each center on behalf of local consortium of organizations who coordinate and deliver four core service streams [14]
Jigsaw Offers diversity of access pathways, often self- and parent-referral [14, 57]
Provides central location and immediate response [34]
Offers accessible prevention and early intervention services [34, 36]
Engages youth in design, implementation, and review of programs and conducted extensive youth consultation process [34, 57]
Involves Youth Advisory Panel at each site and Youth Participation Officer in design and planning process of each initiative [34]
Engages youth to increase likelihood services are relevant, stigma-free, and accessible [36]
Sees youth in their usual settings; plans youth café facility [34]
Consults youth on creating welcoming and approachable sites (e.g., colour schemes, language to describe program, process for entering site, balance between professional and relevant for youth; [36])
Offers youth-friendly, storefront drop-in center [120]
Supports service providers in providing evidence-based, best practice approaches [36, 57]
Exposes sites to youth mental health literature to promote adoption of best practices and reviewed evidence-based programs and research literature in development process [36]
Fosters partnerships among services [36]
Engages and partners with all relevant stakeholders, including key statutory, community, and volunteer agencies, and establishes new partnerships [14]
Develops positive partnerships with government [34]
Orygen Youth Health Matches target age with peak MH onset [12]
Provides early intervention for psychosis, mood disorders, and borderline personality disorder [14]
Offers 24/7 triage, assessment, and crisis response [14]
Facilitates regular meetings of current and past clients to improve service, produce newsletter, and participate in selecting staff [63, 122]
Offers mobile outreach services (IMYOS) for high-risk youth with complex needs and history of poor engagement with clinic-based services [61, 78, 83]
Provides flexible interventions and engages family [124]; designs interventions with youth and families’ guidance [61]
Advocates youth-friendly approaches within IMYOS [61]
Fosters youth-friendly culture [14]
Provides peer support drop-in room [63, 122]
Provides evidence-based mental health care [14]
Focuses on development and delivery of best- practice interventions within IMYOS, though overall approach without documented evidence base [61]
Uses cognitive therapy routinely [61]
Links with other mental health and general support agencies essential to ensure quality service delivery [14]
Provides pilot forensic services through consulting clinicians from specialist institute [123]
YouthCan IMPACT Offers MHA services within walk-in clinic/one-stop shop [44]
Improves access to timely services through community-based stepped-care model [44]
Provides an early, low intensity intervention through solution-focused brief therapy [52]
Develops model with key participation of youth and family members with lived experience of the mental health system [52]
Engages youth in all aspects of the project, such as designing the research study, (i.e., advising how to measure improvement) and choosing clinical services offered [88]
Provides services in youth-friendly environments in the community [52] Links several evidence-informed components within model [52]
Includes evidence-informed interventions, namely, solution-focused brief therapy, youth- and family-focused DBT, and peer support [52]
Develops model in partnership with several community agencies, adolescent psychiatry departments, academic collaborators, and other stakeholders [52]
Partners with outreach services and targeted intervention programs [52]
Encourages partners to join a common culture and respects unique strengths [44]
Youth One Stop Shops Promotes access to range of health care and social services [38]
Improves access through outreach, mobile, satellite services, and/or evening hours; provides transport at times [38]
Offers services in central locations, close to public transport and other places youth frequent [38]
Utilizes youth workers to serve as a communication bridge [38]
Opens site with youth-driven efforts: commissioning needs analysis, forming a trust and lobbying for funding, and employing staff [126]
Facilitates youth focus groups; involves youth in activities such as designing a youth health information card [65]
Involves youth at all levels (e.g., service evaluation, decision-making processes [38])
Offers youth-friendly opening hours to accommodate school and work [38]
Provides facilities attractive to youth (e.g., couches, music, recreational activities; [38])
Employs staff skilled in interacting with youth, responding to needs [38, 127]
Utilizes CBT [65] Links with several organizations formally and informally within and outside the health and disability sector; allows for varying types of relationships and information exchange [38, 127]
Enables through linkages co-location of services, collaboration on community projects and events, development of resources, and cross-trainings [38]
Facilitates better service transitions through collaborations with mental health services [126]
  1. GP general practitioner, CBT cognitive-behavioral therapy, DBT dialectical behavioral therapy, IMYOS Intensive Mobile Youth Outreach Service, NHS National health Services, MH mental health, MHA mental health and addiction